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A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying

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A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 355, Date : 27-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying structure of human intelligence. Researchers at the Liang Bua cave in Indonesia have unearthed what appear to be the smallest skeletons of any hominin species ever found. The brains of these skeletons were shockingly small for hominins, virtually as small as those of chimpanzees. Previously, it had been assumed that the best indicator of intelligence is brain size; however, these hominins were likely smarter than apes, as stone tools were found with the skeletons.

The researchers rejected the explanation that the skeletons found belonged to Homo sapiens suffering from microcephaly, a rare small brain ailment resulting in low IQ, since fossil remains of at least nine individuals were found, and each was just as small as the next. Also set aside were suggestions that these are skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets, because the skulls’ structural characteristics do not resemble Homo sapiens. And since the sophistication of the tools found equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus, a relatively large human ancestor of the Pliocene epoch, intimations that the remains depict a dim-witted species of half-apes were likewise dismissed. The preferred theory is that this community of hominins shrank over time due to insular dwarfism, yet remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, a brain region connected to higher cognitive abilities. This brain region in the hominins was roughly the same size as that of modern humans, who have twice the body size. Such a finding calls into question simplistic equations of brain size relative to body size.

Spoiler: :: OE
This is a retrieval question, as indicated by the phrase according to the passage. The subject of the question is skull morphology. The task of the question is to determine what the researchers concluded about the skull morphology. According to the passage, Also set aside were suggestions that these are skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets, because the skulls’ structural characteristics do not resemble Homo sapiens. So if the researchers had NOT found that the skull morphology of the specimens was different from modern humans, then they could have concluded that these ARE skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets. Evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which does not match this idea.

Choice A: Correct. The passage states that the researchers set aside suggestions that these are skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets, because the skulls’ structural characteristics do not resemble Homo sapiens. So if the researchers had NOT found that the skull morphology of the specimens was different from modern humans, then they could have concluded that the skeletons could have been Homo sapiens midgets. Keep choice A.

Choice B: No. The phrase tools found is recycled language. The passage mentions that sophistication of the tools found equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus, but this implies similarity, not ownership. Also, claiming that Homo erectus is dim-witted is a reversal. The passages states that because of the similarity in tools, the prospects of a dim-witted species of half-apes were likewise dismissed, implying that Homo erectus was not dim-witted. Eliminate choice B.

Choice C: No. This answer choice uses the phrase a smaller Brodmann’s area 10 to compare Indonesian hominins to Homo erectus. However, this is a no such comparison answer, as the passage does not compare these two items. The passage mentions that This brain region in the hominins was roughly the same size as that of modern humans, but does not compare it to the size in Homo erectus. Eliminate choice C.

Choice D: No. The phrase all hominin skulls is extreme language. While the passage states that the skulls’ structural characteristics do not resemble Homo sapiens, it does not discuss all hominin skulls. Eliminate choice D.

Choice E: No. The phrase not as intelligent as modern Homo sapiens is a memory trap. The passage mentions that the hominins remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, a brain region connected to higher cognitive abilities and that This brain region in the hominins was roughly the same size as that of modern humans. However, this does not imply that the two were of similar intelligence. Also, this conclusion was not founded on skull morphology. Eliminate choice E.

The correct answer is choice A.

1. According to the passage, had the researchers NOT found that the skull morphology of the specimens was different from modern humans, the researchers could have concluded that
A. the individuals whose remains were found could have been Homo sapiens midgets
B. the tools found at Liang Bua could have belonged to the dim-witted Homo erectus
C. the Indonesian hominins had a smaller Brodmann’s area 10 than that of Homo erectus
D. all hominin skulls from different eras have distinct structural characteristics
E. the hominins found were not as intelligent as modern Homo sapiens


Spoiler: :: OE
This is a retrieval question, as indicated by the phrase according to the passage. The subject of the question is high intelligence of the hominins. The task of the question is to determine what the passage states about the high intelligence of the hominins. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, the hominins remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, a brain region connected to higher cognitive abilities. Evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which does not match this idea.

Choice A: No. Microcephaly is a reversal. The passage states that microcephaly is a rare small brain ailment resulting in low IQ, which is the opposite of remained intelligent. Eliminate choice A.

Choice B: No. The phrase diminishing food supplies is a memory trap. First, the passage states that the researchers set aside suggestions that these are skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets, making this choice a reversal. While the passage does mention that the preferred theory is that this community of hominins shrank over time due to insular dwarfism, the hominins remained intelligent despite the dwarfism, not because of it. Eliminate choice B.

Choice C: No. This answer choice uses the phrase relative to to compare brain size to body size. However, this is a no such comparison answer, as the passage does not compare these two items. The passage mentions This brain region [Brodmann’s area 10] in the hominins was roughly the same size as that of modern humans, who have twice the body size, but also mentions that the hominins remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain. So only a single region of the brain remained large while the rest got smaller, and no relative relation to body size was made. Eliminate choice C.

Choice D: Correct. The passage states that the hominins remained intelligent…by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, a brain region connected to higher cognitive abilities. Keep choice D.

Choice E: No. The phrase hand tool manufacture is a memory trap. The passage mentions that the sophistication of the tools found equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus, but that does not imply a sophisticated practice of hand tool manufacturing. Eliminate choice E.

The correct answer is choice D.

2. According to the passage, the anthropologists believe that the high intelligence of the hominins found in Indonesia was likely preserved by
A. a small brain ailment known as microcephaly
B. shrinking their bodies to midget size in order to accommodate diminishing food supplies
C. shrinking their bodies so as to maintain a large brain size relative to body size
D. the preservation of a large, high cognition brain region
E. maintaining a sophisticated practice of hand tool manufacture


Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase according to the passage indicates that this is a retrieval question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase compared to Homo erectus stone tools. The subject of the question is the tools found among the specimens in Indonesia. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage the sophistication of the tools found at Liang Bua in Indonesia equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice A: No. Although the recycled language of size from the last part of the passage may make this choice seem tempting, the passage makes no such comparison between the number and size of the tools themselves. The size referred to in the passage refers to the brains, not the tools. Additionally, the passage states that the sophistication of the tools found in Indonesia equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice B: Correct. This answer choice says the hominin tools are similar in ‘make and complexity’ to those of Homo erectus. The passage tells us that the sophistication of the tools found equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice C: No. The recycled language were equal in sophistication may make this choice seem tempting. However, the passage provides no such comparison between the tools found in Indonesia and those of modern humans, but only to those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice D: No. The recycled language Brodmann’s area 10 may make this choice seem tempting. However, this choice is a reversal, since the passage states that the community of hominins kept up intelligence by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, not that they required one that was larger.

Choice E: No. The recycled language relatively and simplistic and the phrase twice the size may make this choice seem tempting. However, this answer choice is a reversal, because the passage cites the sophistication of the Liang Bua tools, not their simplicity.

The correct answer is choice B.

3. According to the passage, compared to Homo erectus stone tools found elsewhere, the tools found among the specimens in Indonesia
A. were the same in number and size
B. were similar in make and complexity
C. were equal in sophistication to those of modern humans
D. required a much larger Brodmann’s area 10
E. were relatively simplistic though twice the size


Originally posted by srij13 on 25 Sep 2019, 10:07.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 21 Oct 2019, 05:59, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1071).
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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2019, 06:59
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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2019, 12:36
1)Answer is clearly A.
~Also set aside were suggestions that these are skeletons of healthy, modern human midgets, because the skulls’ structural characteristics do not resemble Homo sapiens.~
2D)yet remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, a brain region connected to higher cognitive abilities.
3)B yet remained intelligent despite a shrinking brain by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10

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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2019, 05:44
SajjadAhmad - Can you please help me understand the reason for choosing option B in Q3. I cannot locate the reference of this in the paragraph.
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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2019, 06:16
nehasomani33 wrote:
SajjadAhmad - Can you please help me understand the reason for choosing option B in Q3. I cannot locate the reference of this in the paragraph.



The only options which are suitable are B & C, but C cannot be the answer since passage compares the sophistication of homo erectus( and not the modern human tools) tools with the old tools found

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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2019, 06:54
nehasomani33 wrote:
SajjadAhmad - Can you please help me understand the reason for choosing option B in Q3. I cannot locate the reference of this in the paragraph.


Official Explanation


3. According to the passage, compared to Homo erectus stone tools found elsewhere, the tools found among the specimens in Indonesia

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

The phrase according to the passage indicates that this is a retrieval question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase compared to Homo erectus stone tools. The subject of the question is the tools found among the specimens in Indonesia. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage the sophistication of the tools found at Liang Bua in Indonesia equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice A: No. Although the recycled language of size from the last part of the passage may make this choice seem tempting, the passage makes no such comparison between the number and size of the tools themselves. The size referred to in the passage refers to the brains, not the tools. Additionally, the passage states that the sophistication of the tools found in Indonesia equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice B: Correct. This answer choice says the hominin tools are similar in ‘make and complexity’ to those of Homo erectus. The passage tells us that the sophistication of the tools found equals that of those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice C: No. The recycled language were equal in sophistication may make this choice seem tempting. However, the passage provides no such comparison between the tools found in Indonesia and those of modern humans, but only to those belonging to Homo erectus.

Choice D: No. The recycled language Brodmann’s area 10 may make this choice seem tempting. However, this choice is a reversal, since the passage states that the community of hominins kept up intelligence by maintaining a large Brodmann’s area 10, not that they required one that was larger.

Choice E: No. The recycled language relatively and simplistic and the phrase twice the size may make this choice seem tempting. However, this answer choice is a reversal, because the passage cites the sophistication of the Liang Bua tools, not their simplicity.

The correct answer is choice B.


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Re: A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying   [#permalink] 01 Oct 2019, 06:54

A recent study is shedding light on the source and underlying

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