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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to

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Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2011, 01:03
D for me
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Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2011, 12:12
Another D

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Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2011, 14:35
D is def. the right answer.
It is the only statement that makes a direct reference to students who alter their diets which results in an improved performance.
The fact that that their grades improved serves to weaken the conclusion and is 100% relevant to the question at hand.
The answer D also sheds light on the sixty students, half of whom had a better diet but scored no better than the others, since it suggests that the half that had the same grades as the others were in fact students who previously scored much lower than their peers.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2012, 05:37
I used elimination technique

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.- I thought may be it is also to do with age !
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2012, 20:43
Gotta ask, where is this question from? because, if it's from the OG, fine, I'll accept the OA (and I'd like to see the Official Explanation!). If this is from some random collection of CRs, then my answer has to be: NOTA (None Of The Above). Consider:

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
Biz Execs are out of scope for this study. Nor are grades the same as biz performance. No Good.

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
The study does not mention "Honors" students; we don't know how the Honors students altered their diets; we don't know the resulting grades, regardless of study habits. No Good.

(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
Exercise & fitness regimens are not the same as nutritional planning (if someone can show how exercise IS part of nutritional planning, this unquestionably becomes the right answer). Out of scope, so No Good.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
Sorry, but "High school" students are totally out of scope. This is a basic rule of the GMAT: the Argument from Analogy (some other study/law/locality/whatever did X, so we should do X) is never permitted because that other study is out of scope. Further, we have no idea how the high school students altered their diets; this is not the same as "nutritionally balanced". No Good.

(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.
I suppose this answer is the best of a bad lot; at least it's about the same group of students that were studied. Even so, knowing that the students were freshman or sophs tells us nothing directly about the accuracy of the study. Even if every student was a freshman, that tells us nothing about the effects of diet on grades. So No Good.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2012, 17:19
Pretty heated comments and discussions on this question. :roll:

When I read the argument my first instinct was that the study was inaccurate i.e. it is possible that the students who were not considered in the study were already brilliant students / high scoring students. To think of it is this not a clear weakness in the given argument? The "on the contrary" actually led me to think on this aspect.

So when I went through the answer choices, D is the only options which actually helps evaluate the reasoning above and that the study done on the college students was not representative of the actual results.

Hence chose D.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2012, 21:09
(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets. - The focus of discussion is limited to college students - Out of scope - Incorrect
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits. - This information would not help determine whether the revised diet plans worked for college students - Irrelevant - Incorrect
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits. - Additional information is added in this option which is irrelevant to the information provided in the passage - Incorrect
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. - Since high school leads to college and the diet plan worked for high school students in improving their grades, this information would help determine the legitimacy of the argument made - Correct
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college. - The year of student in college is irrelevant to the passage - Incorrect

Hope this helps

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2012, 21:26
We have to determine the accuracy of the study;
Was the study accurate or inaccurate? So we need something which can either seriously weakens or strongly supports the results of the study. (B) & (E) doesn't give the clarity of the study result . (D) wins
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2012, 21:30
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong :(. Can anybody explain the correct answer).


Actually, there is no ambiguity in the question.

What was the study? 60 students were put on nutritious diet. 60 were not.
What was the result? The 60 students who were put on nutritious diet did not have higher grades than other 60.
What did they conclude? Special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades.

Now, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the study. What will help us figure out whether what we concluded from the study is valid or not?
Because 60 students with diet plans did not get better grades, can we say nutrition does not have any positive affect on grades? Perhaps not. What if nutrition can improve low grades (by giving students more energy and making them more active) and bring them up to average (but not improve average to take them to above average since they need to work hard too)? If this were true, the conclusion of the study would not be valid. Special nutritional planning WOULD have a positive affect on students’ grades. "If grades were low, they could become better by nutritional planning"
Hence option (D) is useful in determining the accuracy of the study.

As for other options, focus on what was concluded from the study. Are they relevant to the conclusion "Special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades."?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
Not relevant to students' grades.

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
Students saying that they did not alter their diet doesn't mean anything. It is true that they said it but did they actually maintain their study habit or not, we don't know. So not relevant. No need to think further.

(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
Nothing to do with fitness regime and grades. Only food and grades connection is our concern.

(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.
Again, not relevant.
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Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2012, 19:15
gixxer1000 wrote:
I get answer E.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

We are only concerned about the accuracy of the study. The study looked at 60 students. If these 60 students were not a random group then the study would not be accurate. For example half the students could be seniors who tend to get steady grades because they have made it to their senior year and the other half could be freshmen whose grades are all over the place.

v) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

This is the only answer that adds to the validity of the study sample.

I agree. E is my answer as well.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2013, 11:02
Two things are relevant to measure the accuracy of the study. Whatever the accuracy might be doesn't matter.
1 Diet plan change.
2. Improvement/no improvement/downgrade(scores, performance)

D is the closest thing which talks about these two things.

D is the correct answer

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Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2013, 13:15
I agree with the explanation given for D. And why B is incorrect - Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits - -- Study Habits does not guarantee improvement in the grades. May be taking nutritional diet improves the efficiency of student brain that helps him to get good grades with the same study habits.

Hope it helps.

Sunny


goalsnr wrote:
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

i) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
ii)Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
iii)Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
iv) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
v) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong :(. Can anybody explain the correct answer).


Conclusion: special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades.
Evidence:Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

The evidence here is weak becuase it provides no details about the student's grade before and after the intake of special diet.Only D brings in information to say students with previously lower grades performed well after they started takin in special diet and refute the conclusion that special diet donot affect student's growth. This answer choice can used to measure the accuracy of this conclusion made in the argument.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2013, 23:12
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong :(. Can anybody explain the correct answer).


I was torn between B and D on this one. I think both prove the accuracy of the test in their own way.

B seems like the better answer because the study resulted in no change after diet change. B claims that regardless of diet, study habits don't change. Thus, that's why the nutrition study is accurate, because people don't change their study habits due to diet so therefore, people who were given better meals did not perform better than those who did not.

D on the other hand seems to suggest the test is flawed. If the diet trick worked on younger kids, it should have worked on other people? Thus, the study's results must be inaccurate?

That's how I see those two answers. I ended up choosing B but that was wrong.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2013, 01:06
Hey animanga008, I hope I can help you clarify your doubt regrading this question.

This is the evaluate question. Solving this type of question can be challenging. However, we have the powerful technique called the variance test to determine the correct answer. So let's try the variance test on both answer (B) and (D).

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits. Now apply the variance test. Honor students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study. Does this strengthen the argument that special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades? We don't know because honor students are not the representatives of students as a whole. Let's negate the answer choice. Honor students, after altering their diets, maintained that they DID change their study. Does this weaken the argument? Again, we don't know for the same reason stated above. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.


(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. If this is the case, this would weaken the argument by showing that special nutritional planning DOES positively affect students’ grades. If we negate the answer choice, high school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades DID NOT improved dramatically. If this is the case, it would strengthen the argument by showing that special nutritional planning DOES NOT positively affect students’ grades. So, the variance test works for this answer choice and it is the correct answer.

I admit that this question is a bit weird; the question would be structured better if choice (D) states,"College students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically." Anyway, choice (D) is the best answer here because it covers more representative of students as a whole.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2013, 07:25
Option D is correct, since if the students who previously had poor grades improved their score after the planned nutritional diet, then the diet is supposed to have worked very much as the predicted result.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2014, 23:04
Wouldn't the fact that Honors' students did not change their study habits remove any bias that might occur? For example if you took the diet and studied well, then the results could have been due to study habits rather than diet. So we need to know this.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2014, 22:15
HarishLearner wrote:
Wouldn't the fact that Honors' students did not change their study habits remove any bias that might occur? For example if you took the diet and studied well, then the results could have been due to study habits rather than diet. So we need to know this.


We need to find the option that is MOST helpful in determining the accuracy of the study.

The study says "special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades"

(D) says "High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically."

This is directly against the result of the study. It implies that the study is not accurate.

Option (B) talks about honors students. We do not know how many students in the study were honors students. So we don't know how relevant this information is to our study.

Hence answer is (D) only.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2014, 08:16
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This question appeared in Princeton review Practise Test.
The answer choice D makes the most sense here and that is what I selected in my mock test where I first saw this question.

But frankly speaking I think the question is designed very imperfectly. Here are my reasons :

1. The question stem asks "Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?"... This seems to be an Evaluate question. And the answer choices are straight premises. how does that make sense...? The answer choices must be in questioning format as seen in evaluate type of question. A kind of question stem like this should not have premises directly as an answer.
Or ... If the question stem read, "Which of the following, if true, is most useful in questioning the accuracy of the study described above?" then the question and answers choices make sense together.

I have done all GMAT official CR questions from OGs and Verbal Review. Never came across a question stem like this which doesn't make sense with answers....

2. This CR question is rated at number 5 difficulty level out of 10 in Princeton review test. Difficulty level 5 is of 500 score level . Oh come on..! If this is really such an easy question why would so many guys in gmatclub post wrong answers. And after explanation still dont understand why D is the correct answer...?

So frankly speaking, I dont think this question has any GMAT level clarity in it... The question is not framed in a good way. So there is no need to scratch your heads on a question like this...


Any one agrees with me..!

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect. :|

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2014, 07:11

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