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# A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 11:21
Conclusion: Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Prephrase: To attack the conclusion I would assume that the students whom were given the balanced diet would have lower grades if they were not provided that diet.

A: Irrelevant business executives
B: Irrelevant: study habits
C: Irrelevant: fitness/exercise habits
E: How does this information help to evaluate whether the study was accurate?

D matches with the prephrase. So it is my answer.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 12:07
I have some doubts regarding the explanation.... firstly answer choice D talks about high school students.... we can't compare the grades changes of a high school student and a college student.... secondly the answer choice also uses the term "after they altered diets"... are we supposed to assume altering the diet specifically means moving to a balanced diet... and lastly we need to determine the accuracy of the study... even if high school students responded positively to the study... college students did not... thus we have one positive result and one negative.... how can we say anything about the study's accuracy with only two results and that too opposite...
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 22:38
dennis14 wrote:
I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.

(E) only tells you that they are 1st or 2nd year students, not 3rd or 4th year. How does that affect your study? Half of them are getting balanced diet and half are not. Even if they were 3rd and 4th year students, why would we challenge the results of the study?
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2014, 08:20
I picked E as my answer.

I think high school students are different from college students in that each section of the students study differently. High school students do more in memorizing subjects while college students do have their majors/disciplines. Eating eggs may help improve your memory capability but that may not affect your innovation level when innovation is key to those in colleges.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2015, 19:04
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2015, 20:09
angel2009 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

A. Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.

B. Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

C. Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.

D. High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

E. All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

Hi
can any one please explain D ?
The argument says that diet had no impact on students' grades
where as answer says diet had dramatic impact of the students' grades.
What are we trying to evaluate here?
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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2015, 21:59
angel2009 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

A. Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.

B. Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

C. Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.

D. High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

E. All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

Hi
can any one please explain D ?
The argument says that diet had no impact on students' grades
where as answer says diet had dramatic impact of the students' grades.
What are we trying to evaluate here?

One would predict that a nutritional diet would benefit any student, but the study shows the exact opposite result. So, is that true of just college students? Or, would a reasonably predicted result not apply to other students as well?

Another way to look at it is that the study's conclusion is a generalization on all students. Introducing a different group of students will help to put some scope on the study, and thus evaluate its accuracy. Maybe students' grades won't noticeably improve if you're an "average" and generally good student (at least good enough to go to college), perhaps because they have already been on a good diet or other reasons like college lifestyle differences. So, would a balanced diet affect low grade students, or for that matter, Pre-12 grades, graduate, professional, technical, trade, associates, doctoral candidates, etc.?
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2015, 12:00
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2015, 13:21
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

My take:
If I had to chose, maybe I would answer D and move on. As the ONLY study is contrary to predicted results, maybe another study with +ve or -ve results may be useful to decide the ACCURACY of the given study.

D provides another example with opposite results, so, D is definitely useful. But, no other choices are actually similar to the given study. Is this a method of reasoning Q?

Can somebody tell me the source??

Thanks.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:33
why god why .. why evaluate the argument questions are so difficult , its a 95 % difficulty level question , i thought D is too obvious , the correct answer cannot be this straight , so I marked E. If anyone can please tell me why E is incorrect .
It says (E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.
Applying variance test ,they were in first year of college , all students are taken from same batch similary all students who volunteered were in 2nd year , it again implies all same batch students taken so there is no such thing as improper comparison, students taken from same batch means its an apple to apple comparison and our conclusion holds correct.

Please advise how this is incorrect . Am I thinking too much ? . I am really bad at evaluate questions , what is the frequency of these questions on GMAT .

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:49
dennis14 wrote:
I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.

Seriously you just put my thoughts into words. I was confused between D and E. For D i cant begin to understand how high school students can be compared with volunteers , probably all volunteer are kindergarden student or probably they are all PHD candidates who knows ? how we know we are comparing apple to apple. Although E also doest seem to a justified solid answer but still were better than rest.
I seriously have doubt regarding the correctness of this question , I think I should just focus on OG questions ,there is huge diff between OG questions and questions from others resources.

Ans choice for OG questions as difficult as they may be but are really undisputable.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 07:11
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer).

For people who are countering E, let me give a counter example

Group A : Pre kindergarten students (avg. grades of class : 9/10)
Group B : phD Students (avg. grade of class : 5/10)

So you are saying pre kindergarten kids are more knowledgeable than phD students?

We need to clarify that the grades were from similar tests.

You can't run a mercedes on a dirt mpuntain road and an Ikea on a well built road and claim that since their oil consumption was similar mercedes in not more efficient than Ikea
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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 07:24
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
dennis14 wrote:
I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.

(E) only tells you that they are 1st or 2nd year students, not 3rd or 4th year. How does that affect your study? Half of them are getting balanced diet and half are not. Even if they were 3rd and 4th year students, why would we challenge the results of the study?

Hi Karishma,

Your argument states that 4th year and 3rd years are in the group. But are we sure about the equal distribution?? Your argument assumes that they were equally distributed. But that is the very reason we need E. How do I know this was not a biased study?

Say in group 1 there are mostly 1st and 2nd year ( We don't know the distribution, which is exactly why E is required)

Group 2 : 30 phD students.

I hope you know the grades phD students get.

We are talking about similar grades and not improvements in grades. I rarely know anyone in phD who has come close to three-quarters of their undergrad GPA

We need E to clarify that the test takers were all similar.

Also.... D talks about improvement..

whereas the argument is about similar grades between two groups. D is out of scope.
For D to have been the answer,
the argument would have been :

The improvement of scores in Group 1 was same as improvement of scores in group 2.

But it is not... it's talking about the absolute value of the grade and not its improvement
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 07:40
But IMO, the best option is not there.

Best option would have been :

The avg grades before the study had started was similar for each group.

So nutritional diet had no effect.

But suppose before study started : avg grade of group 2 : 6/10
avg grade of group 1 : 9/10
So if now both groups are at 8/10. Then of course, the diet works. We need improvement and not absolute value. So all in all, I wouldn't worry about this question too much. But if I had to go, I will go with E
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2016, 22:03
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

X = special nutritional planning
Y = students’ grades

X not related positively to students’ grades.

60 students => 30 on diet plan + 30 not on diet plan
Grades were similar after the experiment. so does that mean there is no increase on grades at all.What if grades were lower for "before the experiment" for diet plan group.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

Both seems sketchy to me. But D can't be OA for sure.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. :- Altered diet doesn't mean they started taking "Nutritional diet". Whatever doesn't concern Nutritional diet is out of the question. Second, High school student? we are only concentrating on "students in experiment". That's it.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 08:44
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

X = special nutritional planning
Y = students’ grades

X not related positively to students’ grades.

60 students => 30 on diet plan + 30 not on diet plan
Grades were similar after the experiment. so does that mean there is no increase on grades at all.What if grades were lower for "before the experiment" for diet plan group.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

Both seems sketchy to me. But D can't be OA for sure.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. :- Altered diet doesn't mean they started taking "Nutritional diet". Whatever doesn't concern Nutritional diet is out of the question. Second, High school student? we are only concentrating on "students in experiment". That's it.

We have to provide certain information that shows whether Nutritional diet has any effect on the grades or not.

B is saying they donot change their study habits. So?? How does that matter? Does that tell us Nutritional diet have any effect? Hence, Incorrect.

D is somehow weakening the conclusion by providing some information on change in diet plan and its effect on grades. hence, D is the correct answer.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 14:08
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Part of what makes this an unfair question is the phrasing of the sentence "Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan." Is it saying that there was a group of 60 students who all volunteered for the study, half of the volunteers received a nutritious diet, but all 60 (regardless of diet) had higher grades than students who weren't involved in the study? Or is it saying that of the 60 students who volunteered for the study, the half who were given a nutritious diet had the same grades as the half who didn't?

Even though the first reading seems illogical, it's what the sentence is saying, grammatically! But if the second reading is what's intended, I can understand why (E) isn't correct. If every student who volunteered for the study was in the first or second year, including both the students who were given a nutritious diet and the students who weren't, then the result could still be valid. It's not extensible to the entire college population (maybe, for some weird reason, nutrition only affects older students and not younger ones?) but it's still valid, because it's comparing two comparable groups.

(D) is certainly wrong by GMAT standards too, though. The GMAT doesn't accept answers that require that you assume that one group of people is the same as another group of people, without proving it. The argument would have to show that high school students are physiologically the same as college students, for (D) to stand a chance.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 20:34
abhimahna wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

X = special nutritional planning
Y = students’ grades

X not related positively to students’ grades.

60 students => 30 on diet plan + 30 not on diet plan
Grades were similar after the experiment. so does that mean there is no increase on grades at all.What if grades were lower for "before the experiment" for diet plan group.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

Both seems sketchy to me. But D can't be OA for sure.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. :- Altered diet doesn't mean they started taking "Nutritional diet". Whatever doesn't concern Nutritional diet is out of the question. Second, High school student? we are only concentrating on "students in experiment". That's it.

We have to provide certain information that shows whether Nutritional diet has any effect on the grades or not.

B is saying they donot change their study habits. So?? How does that matter? Does that tell us Nutritional diet have any effect? Hence, Incorrect.

D is somehow weakening the conclusion by providing some information on change in diet plan and its effect on grades. hence, D is the correct answer.

Study habits is related to grades. The red alert here is "Honor students" that is out of our scope, which is limited to students in Experiment. If this option is properly phrased as : Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had changed their study habits. They are spending less amount of time. This is still not providing information if they got better or worse. But still it provides some information that their is some differentiation other than nutrition factor that can explain why half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

ccooley : Pl advise
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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2016, 10:25
abhimahna wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

X = special nutritional planning
Y = students’ grades

X not related positively to students’ grades.

60 students => 30 on diet plan + 30 not on diet plan
Grades were similar after the experiment. so does that mean there is no increase on grades at all.What if grades were lower for "before the experiment" for diet plan group.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.

Both seems sketchy to me. But D can't be OA for sure.

(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. :- Altered diet doesn't mean they started taking "Nutritional diet". Whatever doesn't concern Nutritional diet is out of the question. Second, High school student? we are only concentrating on "students in experiment". That's it.

We have to provide certain information that shows whether Nutritional diet has any effect on the grades or not.

B is saying they donot change their study habits. So?? How does that matter? Does that tell us Nutritional diet have any effect? Hence, Incorrect.

D is somehow weakening the conclusion by providing some information on change in diet plan and its effect on grades. hence, D is the correct answer.

Study habits is related to grades. The red alert here is "Honor students" that is out of our scope, which is limited to students in Experiment. If this option is properly phrased as : Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had changed their study habits. They are spending less amount of time. This is still not providing information if they got better or worse. But still it provides some information that their is some differentiation other than nutrition factor that can explain why half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

ccooley : Pl advise

Remember, we don't have to break the argument here or find another reason.

We just to find out something that proves that the argument is inaccurate or something that proves that the argument is accurate.

So, D here clearly tells that this happened somewhere else and that proves the argument accurate.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 19:13
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer).

VeritasPrepKarishma

I m confused with all the explanations for B,D and E. Please help.
Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2016, 19:13

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