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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of

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Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2010, 22:31
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Hi Guys,

I came across a CR question whose answer explanations, I couldnt understand.

Q-1) A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.


My query: the researcher is saying that low level of immune system activity means lower on tests of mental health. So why is it not true that if there is mental illness there is a chance that immune system is low. thats why he is scoring low on mental health.

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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2010, 03:53
Very good question, think it is i OG.
The answer is D, from a logical perspective, but if you use the tactic of negation, then choice C also fits.

I guess this is one of those cases where Gmat wants us to think logically rather than use tactics.

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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2010, 04:45
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Conclusion : Immune system protects against mental illness. X = immune system Y = protection against mental illness
The most important assumption in the causal argument is the preclusion from reversal of causality. i.e. Y does not leads to X. D does that.

D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease. ---> Y does NOT leads to X.

Hope this is clear.

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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2010, 04:02
this is just an alternate causation
the ans is straight D
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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2010, 09:11
What is alternate causation?

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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2010, 15:30
D for me.

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Re: Mental Health CR [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2010, 01:54
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D it is.

This is the classic problem of Defender Assumption.

It usually happens when two events A and B happen at the same time and Researcher then conclude that one event lead to the event say A leads to B. Of course then the assumption has to be that B doesn't lead to A. If B leads to A, how can you say A leads to B.

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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the stimulus states a correlation that : low level of immune system => bad mental health.
now option D, if false would state the exact oppsotie ie : bad mental health => low level immune system
so, for our conclusion to stand option D should be true.
Ans D

whats the OA, masterBaten80? (sorry, just could resist making the pun)

hope my explanation helped
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2011, 02:30
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wats wrong with C?
on negation, it also destroys the conclusion...
plz explain
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2011, 05:17
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siddharthasingh wrote:
wats wrong with C?
on negation, it also destroys the conclusion...
plz explain

Well, negation technique cannot be used for all the options. Because, on negating, some out-of-scope and irrelevant answers could also come true.

So, it is recommended that negation technique be used after you've eliminated the out-of-scope and irrelevant to the argument options.

Assuming that you've had C and D as close contenders,

C is wrong because it generalizes that high immune people cannot become mentally-ill. However, the question stem talks only about 'protection' in the conclusion.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2011, 02:29
Imo D

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2011, 20:43
+1 for D. Gud Question.

Negate D & the argument falls apart. Negation is a strong technique to confirm the correct answer.

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2012, 03:17
still not convinced with negation theory, help plz :(

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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Manav,

This is a classical causal argument. Note how the argument is presented:

The author starts with an observation that

low levels of immune-system and lower score on tests of mental health occur together. Based on this co-incidence, the author concludes Immune system protects against mental illness.

Now this begs the question, what about the scenario in which mental health impacted immune system (reverse causation) such that low score on mental health caused low immune system performance. However, since the author discounts such a scenario, he assumes such a scenario will not occur. Choice D says the same and is your answer.

Below is another similar argument. Can you find the assumption (along the same lines) in that argument.

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers


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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 02:30
Why not B? If B is negated then also the argument falls flat..also if we dont use negation technique, option B is more apt than option D (IMO)

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2012, 19:13
B is a very tempting answer here because the conclusion bundles together mental health and physical disease. This problem type, however, is a very specific CR assumption subtype. In this subtype, the argument will present two factors that demonstrate correlation - in this case Immune System and Mental Illness. The conclusion asserts a causation (without any rationale) from one factor to the next - here the argument concludes that the Immune System protects against Mental Illness. The implicit assumption in that line of reasoning is that the causation does NOT go in the other direction or in other words you have to assume that Mental Illness does not impact the immune system. Answer choice D states that assumption correctly.

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2012, 12:42
egmat wrote:
Manav,

This is a classical causal argument. Note how the argument is presented:

The author starts with an observation that

low levels of immune-system and lower score on tests of mental health occur together. Based on this co-incidence, the author concludes Immune system protects against mental illness.

Now this begs the question, what about the scenario in which mental health impacted immune system (reverse causation) such that low score on mental health caused low immune system performance. However, since the author discounts such a scenario, he assumes such a scenario will not occur. Choice D says the same and is your answer.

Below is another similar argument. Can you find the assumption (along the same lines) in that argument.

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers



Let me take a crack at the assumption here then e-GMAT.

Conclusion: It is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers
How did we reach the conclusion?
The study that tracked teenagers who took up smoking and how their mental health changed over one year. These teenage smokers were 4x more depressed than their non-smoking counterparts.
Why?
Nicotine changes brain chemistry, affecting one's mood.

Assumptions:
- Both groups of teenagers were equally comparable before they started smoking. In other words, one group was not more prone to depression already before they took up smoking.
- The cigarettes that the teenagers smoked contained nicotine
And, along the same lines as what we saw in the example above:
- The nicotine in cigarettes caused the depression. The depression feelings did not however influence these teenagers to smoke.

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2012, 13:49
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
The official answer is D, my answer is B.
Here is my reasoning: the conclusion mentioned physical disease while it was not mentioned in the entire paragraph, therefore the assumption we are looking for must connect the existing evidence to physical disease. B says mental illness and physical illness are similar in effecting bodysystems,w which implies their correlation withImmune system is similar.
But D, whether or not mental llness causes immune system activity is irrelavant.

please advise!
thanks

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of   [#permalink] 04 Sep 2012, 13:49

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