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# A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2012, 16:49
+1 D

In the first sentence of the argument, the author shows a correlation between inmune-system activity and mental health. But then, in the conclusion indicates that there is a CAUSAL relation between those elements. (Notice the word "protects"). In other words, inmune-system activity is the cause, and mental health is the effect. It's clear that the author is assuming that there is a causal relationship in the described order.

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2012, 19:55
No I haven 't, I just finished the manhattan GMAT verbal, thanks a lot for recommending.

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 03:48
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can any expert post a comprehensive soln of this cr. thanx in advance.

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 07:38
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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 09:19
rajathpanta wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower
on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded
from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

Oa... later

If mental illness is not similar to physical disease in its effects on body sytems, then the researcher cannot conclude from his experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as againt physical disease.

Therefore, I'll go with B
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 09:28
Think over again. This is a good question for me.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 09:47
1
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rajathpanta wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower
on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded
from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

Oa... later

Let's restate the argument :
Premise:
On tests of mental health : Scores of ppl with LOW ISA << Scores of ppl with NORMAL or HIGH ISA (ISA = immune-system activity)
Conclusion:
immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

A- Wrong since we are comparing normal and high ISA with low ISA
B- Out of scope : the argument never stated any effects on body systems from either mental illness or physical disease.
C- Out of scope
D- correct : if we negate it : mental illness does cause people's ISA to decrease and that let the conclusion not valid.
E- Out of scope
Thanks for the question

i hope i get it correct this time
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 11:12
I'll go with D. If mental illness did decrease immune system activity to decrease, the researcher's hypothesis would be incorrrect.

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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of.. [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2013, 21:50
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

Classic GMAT question

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2013, 00:07
2
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1
This post was
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ritula wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

The question used cause and effect logic.
A & B both happen.
A --> B, only if B does NOT cause A

D is correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2013, 09:01
ritula wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

I picked C.I am not finding why c is wrong.Can u explain why c is wrong?

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2013, 22:39
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Expert's post
5
This post was
BOOKMARKED
supri23 wrote:
ritula wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

I picked C.I am not finding why c is wrong.Can u explain why c is wrong?

Hi,

To tackle your doubt, let me begin from the passage itself.

Understanding the Passage

A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.

This statement talks about a discovery by a researcher. The researcher discovered that people who have

low immune system activity have lower mental health
normal or high immune system activity have better mental health.

So, what he saw was that mental health increased with increase in immune system activity.

The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher thought about the reason as to why this pattern exists. He thought an explanation for this pattern is that immune system protects against mental illness or poor mental health. If his explanation is true, then people with lower immune system should have poorer mental health than people with normal or higher immune system activity. This is what he has observed. So, he made the conclusion as stated in the above statement of the passage.

Pre-thinking Assumption

Now, what is the assumption built in the conclusion drawn by the researcher?

The assumption is that there is no other explanation which could explain the given observed pattern. If there are other explanations for the observed pattern, then it would cast a serious doubt on the conclusion drawn by the author.

Now, what could be an alternate explanation?

This could be a hard question for people new to causal arguments but for people who have done some practice of causal arguments, they can figure out the answer to this quite easily.

Remember, the researchers concluded that immune system protects against mental illness because this can explain the observed pattern. Now, if we say that mental illness causes decline in immune system activity, then even this statement could explain the given observed pattern (where both immune system activity and mental health increase or decrease simultaneously). Now, if this could also be an explanation, then the author must have considered this explanation and 'assumed' that this cannot be be true.

So, an assumption in the above argument is that mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease. This is what option D is.

Now, coming to option C:

People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.

First of all, we need to think why does the author need to assume this? Remember a golden rule:

The author assumes only those things without which his argument will not hold true.

For this reason, the 'assumptions' are called must be true statements, which means that the assumptions must be true for the conclusion to hold true.

Now, is Option C a must be true statement?

What if option C is false i.e. People with high immune-system activity can develop mental illness. Will it falsify the conclusion?

The answer is No. The conclusion can still hold even when this statement is false. Therefore, it cannot be an assumption.

Hope this helps

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 07:07
Can someone provide a detailed explanation!
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 10:36
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone provide a detailed explanation!

Argument:
Researcher discovery from experiment: people with low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.
Researcher conclusion: the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

Pre thinking:
Researcher observation is that low levels of immune-system activity tend to have lower score on mental health.
He made the conclusion that immune system protect against mental illness.
We can make another conclusion that lower score on mental health (i.e. mental) illness causes lower immune system activity. So an underlying assumption here is that mental illness does not cause low immune system activity.

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
INCORRECT: the argument is not about high and normal immune system. Nothing about normal immune system is provided.

(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
INCORRECT: The argument is focussed on mental illness and immune system and conclusion has nothing to do with body systems in general.

(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
INCORRECT: Conclusion says that immune system protects against mental illness like it does again physical illness. Doesn’t mean that people with high immune system can’t develop mental or physical illness.

(D) Mental illness does not cause people's immune-system activity to decrease.
CORRECT: Look at the pre thinking. If this is false then we will get the conclusion that lower score on mental health (i.e. mental illness) causes lower immune system activity. So for researchers conclusion to hold this must be true and be the assumption.

(E)Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.
INCORRECT: This doesn’t tell if immune system is effective for preventing mental illness or not.

The key here was that researcher could have made multiple conclusion from his experiment.Why he reached at one conclusion helped me in determining the underlying assumption.
Hope this helps.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 22:44
I was able to arrive at the answer by POE eliminating answer choice based that are irrelevant and out of scope but wasn't convinced with the explanation...

The argument jumps from mental health to mental illness... still confused lol
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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14 May 2013, 23:36
fozzzy wrote:
I was able to arrive at the answer by POE eliminating answer choice based that are irrelevant and out of scope but wasn't convinced with the explanation...

The argument jumps from mental health to mental illness... still confused lol

Mental health and mental illness can be taken as same thing. I mean a lower mental health will mean some mental illness.
So we can consider lower score on mental health = mental illness.
However this is not the main point of the argument.

Just think only about the following statement:
Researcher observation is that low levels of immune-system activity tend to have lower score on mental health.

What conclusion will you make out of it?

I will make one of the following two conclusions:
1. EITHER – Lower immune system causes mental illness which means that immune system protect against mental illness.
2. OR - Mental illness causes lower immune system.

Now author chooses 1st as his conclusion and ignores the second .So we will have to find a way to show that second conclusion will not hold and that will be our assumption.
This is what choice D do and hence the correct answer.

Hope it is clear now.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2013, 12:15
This is one of the best OG CR question.

Here the main point is,
mental illness is prevalant not only in lower immune-system but also in higher or normal immune-system.

But Higher or Normal immune-system has less level of mental illness than Lower immune system.

So, good(normal and high) Immune system help to avoid/reduce Mental illness.

Thus, if we reduce the immunity is reduced due to Mental illness , it proves the research is wrong,therefore the assumption is it does not.

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2013, 12:59
Marcab wrote:
wats wrong with C?
on negation, it also destroys the conclusion...
plz explain

ppl with high immune system can cause mental illness... now thats grossly wrong
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2013, 22:12
Even though experts have poured in their thoughts on why (D) is correct, no one has stated why (B) is incorrect.

On my first thought I never got involved in correlation-causation. I thought it was the last criterion after I apply the GAP/HOLE in the argument.

When I look at the assumption question, I just found out one HOLE in the argument.

Premise: Score on TOMH LI<HI
Conclusion: IS protects against MI as well as PD

PD=Physical disease , IS=Immune system, TOMH=tests of mental health, LI=Low immunity,MI=Mental illness.

Nowhere the argument mentioned PD in premises. However, it mentions the same directly in the conclusion.

So, is the leap from TOMH to MI and PD is genuine.

So why (B) cannot be correct one?

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2013, 08:53
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Hi TGC,

Actually Kyle above did a good job of explaining it. But I'll try again in a different format to see if that helps.

The key issue here is the exact phrasing of the question:

The researcher's conclusion depends on which of the following [b]assumptions
?[/b]

I've highlighted the key words. It means that for the answer to be correct, the answer choice has to be dependant

With Answer B that is not the case - whilst if it were true it would certainly help the argument, the argument does not depend on it. For example there could be a way that the mental and physical ailments affect the body very differrently, but that the immune system still looks after both.

Does that make sense?

All the best,
James
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of   [#permalink] 21 Sep 2013, 08:53

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