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# A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two

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A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2009, 01:19
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A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements, It must accurately describe a large class of observations in terms of a model that is simple enough to contain only a few elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations, For example, Aristotle’s cosmological theory, which claimed that everything was made out of four elements---earth, air, fire, and water---satisfied the first requirement, but it did not make any definite, Thus, Aristotle’s cosmological theory was not a good theory.
If all the statements in the passage are true, each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:
(A) Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory.
(B) Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle’s cosmological Theory
(C) Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simple enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory.
(D) A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory
(E) Aristotle’s cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements.
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15 Jul 2009, 04:22
IMO B.

the passage only says Aristotles theory did not make definite predictions about the results of future observations. it does not say that the observation of physical phenomna was not a concern at all. may be the current physical phenomena were observed but no future predictions were made
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15 Jul 2009, 04:28
B looks like the ans.What is the OA?
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16 Jul 2009, 14:37
A) Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory. -- True since it is one of the requirement to be a good scientific theory.
(B) Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle’s cosmological Theory - sounds out of scope with the information provided. hence the answer
(C) Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simple enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory. -- few elements in the first point is not defined. But since Aristotle's theory is mentioned as satifying the first point then four elements can be considered few.
(D) A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory -- true according to the first element.
(E) Aristotle’s cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements. -- true
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17 Jul 2009, 03:00
plz post the OA
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18 Jul 2009, 10:05
Agree with B
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20 Jul 2009, 02:46
tenaman10 plz post the OA.
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20 Jul 2009, 11:13
OA is B as per:
cr-5607.html#p31637
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21 Jul 2009, 01:46
B is the most logical.
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21 Jul 2009, 02:18
sudeep wrote:
OA is B as per:
cr-5607.html#p31637

thx Sudeep
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21 Jul 2009, 09:34
I think it is B.
However, passage requires to "make definite predictions about the results ".
While, option A is "Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory. – a definite prediction is required." Can we take "definite" predicition for given in A?? Thoughts??
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29 Mar 2011, 04:08
tenaman10 wrote:
A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements, It must accurately describe a large class of observations in terms of a model that is simple enough to contain only a few elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations, For example, Aristotle’s cosmological theory, which claimed that everything was made out of four elements---earth, air, fire, and water---satisfied the first requirement, but it did not make any definite, Thus, Aristotle’s cosmological theory was not a good theory.
If all the statements in the passage are true, each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:
(A) Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory.
(B) Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle’s cosmological Theory
(C) Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simple enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory.
(D) A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory
(E) Aristotle’s cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements.

Can someone please have a dig at option (A) please. Isnt this a case of mistaken reversal?

Premise says "if a theory is good, it should make a prediction about future observations"
Mistaken reversal of this statement would be: "if a theory makes prediction, it is a good theory". And this what is written out in option (A) isn't it? So IMO A should not be true. Where am I going wrong?
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29 Mar 2011, 20:22
gmatpapa wrote:
tenaman10 wrote:
A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements, It must accurately describe a large class of observations in terms of a model that is simple enough to contain only a few elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations, For example, Aristotle’s cosmological theory, which claimed that everything was made out of four elements---earth, air, fire, and water---satisfied the first requirement, but it did not make any definite, Thus, Aristotle’s cosmological theory was not a good theory.
If all the statements in the passage are true, each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:
(A) Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory.
(B) Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle’s cosmological Theory
(C) Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simple enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory.
(D) A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory
(E) Aristotle’s cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements.

Can someone please have a dig at option (A) please. Isnt this a case of mistaken reversal?

Premise says "if a theory is good, it should make a prediction about future observations"
Mistaken reversal of this statement would be: "if a theory makes prediction, it is a good theory". And this what is written out in option (A) isn't it? So IMO A should not be true. Where am I going wrong?

Option A is a play of words... it is not reversal... option A talks about prediction being a part of any theory which is claimed to be good!
If put in simpler terms instead of the passive voice tone in the option.. the option A reads as
Any good theory must predict the results of future observations....
And this we can directly infer from the stimulus given.. Hope this makes option A clear..
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29 Mar 2011, 20:38
A is a partial rewording of the stimulus... and B is the answer
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Re: A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2016, 05:40
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A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2016, 11:20
I went with B but if you ask me Option D is rather poorly phrased.

A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory

The option creates an equivalence between a 'model' and a 'theory', but given this is an EXCEPT question it's probably ok. But is everyone sure that Option D is wrong choice not because it rejects the false equivalence it created itself or because they're playing on the words many and few (as in finite)
A scientific theory is a good theory if it satisfies two   [#permalink] 01 Oct 2016, 11:20
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