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# A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high

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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2016, 07:57
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69% (02:18) correct 31% (02:22) wrong based on 346 sessions

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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high latitudes, where UV exposure is minimal, had higher cancer rates than did those who lived near the equator, where UV exposure is, on average, far greater. One of the effects of UV radiation on humans is that it stimulates vitamin D manufacture in exposed skin. These results are consistent with other studies demonstrating that cancer patients often have lower than average vitamin D levels. Therefore, high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer in humans.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful to know in order to evaluate the validity of the argument’s conclusion?

Does seasonal affective disorder, experienced more frequently by those living at high latitudes than by those living at the equator, predispose its sufferers to cancer?

Do high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the incidence of the common cold?

Can blood levels of vitamin D be raised through supplementation, thus reducing the risk of sunburn due to UV exposure?

Does exposure to UV radiation prevent cancer in other mammals, such as laboratory rats?

Are wintertime low vitamin D levels responsible for the flu season phenomenon?

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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2016, 08:41
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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high latitudes, where UV exposure is minimal, had higher cancer rates than did those who lived near the equator, where UV exposure is, on average, far greater. One of the effects of UV radiation on humans is that it stimulates vitamin D manufacture in exposed skin. These results are consistent with other studies demonstrating that cancer patients often have lower than average vitamin D levels. Therefore, high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer in humans.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful to know in order to evaluate the validity of the argument’s conclusion?

Does seasonal affective disorder, experienced more frequently by those living at high latitudes than by those living at the equator, predispose its sufferers to cancer? This introduces another issue which can possibly be the real reason rather than the Vitamin D. Hence the answer to this would help us evaluate the conclusion. I prefer this as answer

Do high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the incidence of the common cold? Doesn't have any relevance to the question

Can blood levels of vitamin D be raised through supplementation, thus reducing the risk of sunburn due to UV exposure? The Answer to this doesn't conclude anything relevant to the conclusion.

Does exposure to UV radiation prevent cancer in other mammals, such as laboratory rats? This raises more questions than answers

Are wintertime low vitamin D levels responsible for the flu season phenomenon? Flu season phenomenon has nothing to do with the cancer.
My answer is option A. What does OA say. Please give Kudos if this helped. I never got one, of course I never posted one and hence never deserved one.
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2016, 10:53
The conclusion of this argument is that high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer in humans.

Author derives the conclusion by putting forth a study data about effects of UV on cancer fighting ability of humans. It further talks about the effects of UV radiation on humans is that it stimulates vitamin D manufacture in exposed skin and these results are consistent with other studies demonstrating that cancer patients often have lower than average vitamin D levels.

now authors clearly thinks that only high levels of vitamin D in blood reduces the risk of cancer. Is there any reason that creates the chances of cancer.

SO, option A fits the space.
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2016, 01:20

UV near equator help in reducing cancer -->so people living in high altitudes (are at more risk due to low UV)
What would help -- is UV the only reason, any alternate possibility

a) Does seasonal affective disorder, experienced frequently at high latitudes than at the equator, predispose its sufferers to cancer - --evaluate is there alternate cause -- Correct

b) common cold -- irrelevant

c) Can blood levels of vitamin D be raised - we are concerned about the study , UV can be raised but not important right now for the argument evaluation.

d) prevent cancer in other mammals -- irrelevant
e) flu season phenomenon -- irrelevant (flu vs cancer ? )
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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2016, 03:39
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A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high latitudes, where UV exposure is minimal, had higher cancer rates than did those who lived near the equator, where UV exposure is, on average, far greater. One of the effects of UV radiation on humans is that it stimulates vitamin D manufacture in exposed skin. These results are consistent with other studies demonstrating that cancer patients often have lower than average vitamin D levels. Therefore, high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer in humans.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful to know in order to evaluate the validity of the argument’s conclusion?

Does seasonal affective disorder, experienced more frequently by those living at high latitudes than by those living at the equator, predispose its sufferers to cancer?

Do high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the incidence of the common cold?

Can blood levels of vitamin D be raised through supplementation, thus reducing the risk of sunburn due to UV exposure?

Does exposure to UV radiation prevent cancer in other mammals, such as laboratory rats?

Are wintertime low vitamin D levels responsible for the flu season phenomenon?
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2016, 19:25
Given the argument, high sun exposure -> high vitamin D production -> less cancer
But would low sun exposure -> lower vitamin production -> higher cancer rate? This would be the most helpful question to evaluate the validity of the argument's conclusion and that's what's I'm looking for in the following questions:

(A) Does seasonal affective disorder, experienced more frequently by those living at high latitudes than by those living at the equator, predispose its sufferers to cancer?
-- During the period of high seasonal affective disorder at high latitude, people are exposed to less sun, on average, than at other times of the year. Given this controlled environment, it would be indeed most helpful to examine whether cancer rates go up. Keep it.

(B) Do high blood levels of vitamin D reduce the incidence of the common cold?
-- Irrelevant, wrong disease.

(C) Can blood levels of vitamin D be raised through supplementation, thus reducing the risk of sunburn due to UV exposure?
-- Artificially increasing vitamin D levels is spot on; but there is a disconnect on what outcome to measure. A sunburn is a sunburn; it's not necessarily cancer.

(D) Does exposure to UV radiation prevent cancer in other mammals, such as laboratory rats?
-- The argument above is all about humans, not animals.

(E) Are wintertime low vitamin D levels responsible for the flu season phenomenon?
-- Irrelevant, wrong disease.

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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2016, 10:55
Only A does... This is the only reason I choose A. I still cant understand A.
Can someone elaborate ..?
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2016, 23:58
nikhiljd wrote:
Only A does... This is the only reason I choose A. I still cant understand A.
Can someone elaborate ..?

Hi nikhiljd,

The premise talks about the relation between high sun exposure that leads to high vitamin D and hence less cancer.
Once we have understood this, we need to find the option that supports this hypothesis.

Of the given options, only option A does that by asking a question that "do the seasonal affective disorders experienced by those living at high altitudes cause cancer."
If we answer this question, we can tell if cancer is linked to Vitamin D or not.

Does this help?
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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12 May 2017, 09:41
I fail to recognize the connection between seasonal disorder and the cancer, i thought both of them are related, but I was wrong.
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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26 May 2017, 06:55

probes whether there are any other factors (other than low UV rays leading to low Vitamin D in body), which possibly affect high altitude gentry more than lower altitude gentry, a finding that actually increases the predisposition to cancer (increase the chances of being "at risk" to be hit by cancer)

then you can say that High Altitude <=>UV rays (and hence Vitamin D in body) are correlated and does not imply causation since causation is established by seasonal affective disorder (whatever that means)

+1 Kudos if you like the explaination
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Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high  [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2017, 04:25
the argument looks confusing but it is not hard to summarize, paraphrase, and understand the whole argument. Basically, there are 3 elements, UV exposition, vitamin D, and cancer rate.
Premise (the only premise): studies show that UV exposition low = vitamin D low will lead to high cancer rate.
Conclusion, high vitamin D = low cancer rate.

Using POE => A
ALternatively, A gives a pattern in which another cause is responsible for the high cancer rate.
Re: A study of more than 5,000 people showed that those who lived at high &nbs [#permalink] 12 Dec 2017, 04:25
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