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# A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra

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Manager
Joined: 04 Dec 2016
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A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2017, 20:47
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (02:22) correct 42% (02:36) wrong based on 217 sessions

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A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cranial size and, in turn, brain size. However, another study suggests that humans who grow up farther from the equator are exposed to less ambient sunlight and therefore develop larger eyes, which in turn lead to larger visual cortices, increasing total brain size. Since the populations of some races are concentrated closer to the equator and the populations of other races are concentrated farther from the equator, data that appear to support the racial theory of brain size may fit the ambient-light theory of brain size equally well or even better.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The ﬁrst is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

The ﬁrst is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

The ﬁrst is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

The ﬁrst is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is an objection to that claim.

The ﬁrst is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion about the likelihood of accuracy of that claim.

Source: GmatFree
Senior Manager
Joined: 09 Feb 2015
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Location: India
Concentration: Social Entrepreneurship, General Management
GMAT 1: 690 Q49 V34
GMAT 2: 720 Q49 V39
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Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 02:58
sillyboy wrote:
A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cranial size and, in turn, brain size. However, another study suggests that humans who grow up farther from the equator are exposed to less ambient sunlight and therefore develop larger eyes, which in turn lead to larger visual cortices, increasing total brain size. Since the populations of some races are concentrated closer to the equator and the populations of other races are concentrated farther from the equator, data that appear to support the racial theory of brain size may fit the ambient-light theory of brain size equally well or even better.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The ﬁrst is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position. BF1 is not against the position defended by the argument

The ﬁrst is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation. BF2 is not the explanation that is challenged

The ﬁrst is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
BF2 is not the explanation that is challenged.

The ﬁrst is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is an objection to that claim.
BF2 is not an objection to the claim

The ﬁrst is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion about the likelihood of accuracy of that claim.
Correct

Source: GmatFree

A Claim is put forth and a contradictory claim is introduced. The author agrees with that claim .
BF1 : This is a claim that is being discussed and likedly supported by the author.
BF2 : A reason is presented to assert the likelihood of that claim.

Only option E suports.
Manager
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Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 04:07
I'm not able to get the conclusion of the argument, Please explain me. and Why BF1 is not an evidence?
Senior Manager
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Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 05:37
1
r19 wrote:
I'm not able to get the conclusion of the argument, Please explain me. and Why BF1 is not an evidence?

Evidence is a fact that can be verified and that is undeniable. BF1 is not a fact but conclusion of a study ,hence we cannot term it as a fact.

The passage talks about two studies and which the author agrees to . BF2 is the conclusion as to which theory the author agrees to.

hope i am clear!:)
Manager
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Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 08:55
goforgmat Thanks for the reply
Yes, I understand about evidence now a bit more . But still not convinced for the below statement. If the result is from the another study can't it be verified and considered as undeniable?
"another study suggests that humans who grow up farther from the equator are exposed to less ambient sunlight and therefore develop larger eyes, which in turn lead to larger visual cortices, increasing total brain size"
Senior Manager
Joined: 09 Feb 2015
Posts: 358
Location: India
Concentration: Social Entrepreneurship, General Management
GMAT 1: 690 Q49 V34
GMAT 2: 720 Q49 V39
GPA: 2.8
Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 10:15
r19 wrote:
goforgmat Thanks for the reply
Yes, I understand about evidence now a bit more . But still not convinced for the below statement. If the result is from the another study can't it be verified and considered as undeniable?
"another study suggests that humans who grow up farther from the equator are exposed to less ambient sunlight and therefore develop larger eyes, which in turn lead to larger visual cortices, increasing total brain size"

absolutely, but when another person verifies it doesn't have to come out to be absolute truth.
For example ,the author of the study stating that claim is a fact , but the claim itself doesn't have to be. It can happen that the way a study is conducted may not be fool proof. the Author could have drawn false conclusion .
Remember that when a researcher conducts studies ,he studies certain parameters their co-relation or causation and then draws conclusion. It is possible that it can be absolutely true or just a false conclusion. In this case we cannot say it is a fact.
Fact must be undeniable.

Go through some basic concepts related to BF question ,it will be more clear.
Intern
Joined: 27 Mar 2017
Posts: 25
Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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22 May 2017, 19:29
Isn't the first BF an evidence or fact ?

How does it classify as a 'claim' ? The first BF refers to a study which is factual.
SVP
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Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2017, 00:02
pls help. Is gmatfree a reliable source?
This question looks good.
Re: A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra &nbs [#permalink] 04 Dec 2017, 00:02
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# A theory argues that racial differences can lead to differences in cra

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