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# According to findings derived from functional magnetic

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According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2013, 04:43
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According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.

(A) whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,
(B) whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and
(C) each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while
(D) each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while
(E) each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by gmatter0913 on 22 Sep 2013, 05:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2013, 04:57
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According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.

(A) whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, - CORRECT

(B) whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and - Use of WHEREAS & AND together is incorrect. Both words mean different things. Thus Incorrect.

(C) each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while - Singular antecedent "Each Language" require singular pronoun and not plural. Moreover, WHEN is incorrectly used. Thus Incorrect

(D) each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while - This option means that in the past language occupied a certain area of the brain, but not it doesn't. Changes the meaning. Thus Incorrect

(E) each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and - This sentence is a big run-on and fragment as OCCUPYING is acting as a modifier. Thus Incorrect.

Hope this will help many to come
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2013, 08:34
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imhimanshu wrote:
Hello fameatop,

Can you please detail the correct usage of "When". Its been increasingly used in incorrect answer choices, so just want to make sure how "When" works.

Thanks
Himanshu

If you are asking about option C then apart from "when", there is another error --> use of plural pronoun "they" to refer to singular noun "each language".

You can find a very good explanation of the usage of "when" by e-gmat in their blog:
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=169

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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2014, 21:04
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A is best here: whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner

reason : note that u need a contrast here
faults:shown in bold

A. whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,------>correct
B. whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and------------>"and" contradicts the required contrast
C. each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while
D. each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while
E. each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and---->"and" contradicts the required contrast
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2014, 06:02
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Quote:
Not clear on why c is incorrect. Could any one please elucidate

C says: each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while

the construction of "when" is wrong in option C --->it seems to suggest that "these languages" occupy distinct area when they are learned by an adult and not at other times !!!, an interpretation which is wrong
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2014, 11:49
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gmattesttaker2 wrote:
Hello,

Can you please assist with this:

According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.

A. whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,
B. whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and
C. each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while
D. each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while
E. each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and

Thanks a lot for your help.

Best Regards,
Sri

==============================================

Hello Mike,

Hope all is well. I was just wondering if you can please assist with this when you get a chance. I thought that anything after the semi-colon should be able to stand alone as a separate sentence and hence I eliminated A and B. However, the correct answer is A. Thanks for all your valuable time and help.

Best Regards,
Sri

Dear Sri,
I'm happy to respond.

First of all, yes, anything that follows a semicolon should be able to stand as it's own as a sentence --- but remember, that's everything following the semicolon, not just the first bit up to the comma. Consider the sentence:
I don't like Herbert; after the party, he insulted Mary.
Obviously, "after the party" can't stand on it's own, but the entire section after the semicolon could be a stand-on-its-own sentence.

In (A), the part after the semicolon would be:
Whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.
That is a 100% valid sentence on its own. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom ... ed-idioms/
himanshujovi wrote:
Not clear on why c is incorrect. Could any one please elucidate ?

Dear himanshujovi,
The problem with (C) is the pronoun disagreement ----
... each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult ...
See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-sente ... agreement/

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2014, 22:43
Quote:
mike wrote: The problem with (C) is the pronoun disagreement ----
... each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult ...

hi mike
i agree that i missed out on pronoun fault but i feel that had "it" been used instead of "they" then also this option would have been wrong for the reason that i have cited

new version of C: each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when it is learned by an adult, while ------>still wrong

thanks and regards
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 09:49
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Expert's post
hi mike
i agree that i missed out on pronoun fault but i feel that had "it" been used instead of "they" then also this option would have been wrong for the reason that i have cited

new version of C: each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when it is learned by an adult, while ------>still wrong

thanks and regards

I'm happy to respond.

Here's version (C), minus the pronoun error:
each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when it is learned by an adult, while language areas overlap in a young child.

Well, hmm, this is not exactly as I would phrase it if I were speaking about this topic, but this is not clearly wrong. If right is white and wrong is black, this is light gray. Not perfect, to be sure, but sometimes the best answer on an official GMAT SC is not perfect, simply the best of the five. Sometimes they right questions of that sort, to punish students who are looking for "perfection."

There is no grammatical error in this version. There is nothing that is clearly and unambiguously wrong. The "while" structure doesn't imply rigid parallelism, and so we don't need to have "each language does X while each language does Y," although tighter parallelism might make the sentence slightly clearly or more persuasive. This is a funny thing about parallelism. Some structures (not only ... but also; both ... and; etc.) absolutely demand parallelism, but others, like this "while" structure, certainly could accommodate parallelism, but parallelism is not strictly necessary.

Mike
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 10:02
Quote:

firstly thanks for putting up your thoughts

my concern was regarding the faulty usage of "when" in the following construction: each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when it is learned by an adult, while ----->according to me it gives a very weird interpretation that "these languages" occupy distinct area when they are learned by an adult and not at other times !!
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 12:29
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Quote:

firstly thanks for putting up your thoughts

my concern was regarding the faulty usage of "when" in the following construction: each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when it is learned by an adult, while ----->according to me it gives a very weird interpretation that "these languages" occupy distinct area when they are learned by an adult and not at other times !!

Hmmm. Now we are getting into some strange existential territory.

Let's think about a foreign language, say Russian. The Russian language objectively exists out in the world --- it has whatever grammar, verb tenses, etc. etc., all the features of a language. BUT, when does it "occupy a distinct area of the brain"? Only when an individual human is learning it, when an individual human is putting this language into that distinct region of the brain. It can't exist in regions of the brain apart from a real brain.

It's like the old question: when a tree falls in a forest and no one there, does it make a sound? The objective quality of the sound wave is there, irrespective of an observer, but the experience that we call "sound" depends on an observer to have the experience.

Now, super-technically, I guess we would say the Russian language exists in this distinct region of the brain both when someone is learning the language and when someone already knows it and is fully fluent. The brain regions presumably don't change when we reach fluency. Nevertheless, this is a level of philosophizing one never has to do to answer GMAT SC questions.

Remember that the word "when" is not exclusive. If I say, "I am happy when the New York Mets win," that doesn't imply that this is the only occasion in my entire life when I am happy. There may be hundreds of things that make me happy, and this particular occasion is merely one example.

The word "when" is perfectly fine here.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 11:53
qwerty12321 wrote:
In option (A) shouldn't there be a comma after 'whereas'?
Thanks.

No, whereas wouldn't require a comma. The nice thing is that the GMAT wouldn't test you on comma placement like that.

KW
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 12:44
qwerty12321 wrote:
Hi Kyle,

In MGMAT SC guide Page 198 commas are used after whereas, when it is used after a semicolon.

Thanks.

Sounds interesting...can you post an example sentence?

KW
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 14:53
qwerty12321 wrote:
KyleWiddison wrote:
qwerty12321 wrote:
Hi Kyle,

In MGMAT SC guide Page 198 commas are used after whereas, when it is used after a semicolon.

Thanks.

Sounds interesting...can you post an example sentence?

KW

Hi Kyle,

Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; therefore, we never see them apart.

Is that the example you were citing from the Strategy Guide? "Therefore" in that usage does use a comma after the semicolon (as would however, moreover, therefore, consequently, otherwise, nevertheless, thus). I'm interested to see an example with whereas. I just have the digital edition of the strategy guide with me but maybe the pages don't line up because there isn't anything with "whereas" around page 198 for me...

KW
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2014, 14:41
qwerty12321 wrote:
Hi Kyle

You are right. There is no example with 'whereas'.

Why is this so?

Are you asking why whereas doesn't use a comma here or why there aren't examples of whereas in the strategy guide?
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2014, 10:23
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jorgearredondoc wrote:
I do believe that A is the best option overall. My only concern would be the lack of parallelism:

...of the language learner; whereas EACH LANGUAGE occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, LANGUAGE AREAS overlap in a young child.

Does someone have feedback regarding the use of whereas and parallelism?

I would term this a comparison problem (the close relative to parallelism) because you are comparing two different things: whereas X, Y. It seems like the comparison elements would be just as you outlined: whereas each language..., language areas. Those two things don't seem to be logically comparable, but whereas is used to compare clauses (it's a variation of "as", which compares clauses). So we are really comparing both ENTIRE clauses: whereas X) each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in adults, Y) language areas overlap in children. This is grammatically correct. We might prefer more similarities in the subjects of these clauses, but the GMAT doesn't give us that option so we eliminate our way to this choice as our correct answer.

KW
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2014, 15:20
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2013gmat wrote:
gmattesttaker2 wrote:
Hello,

Can you please assist with this:

According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.

A. whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,
B. whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and
C. each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while
D. each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while
E. each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and

Thanks a lot for your help.

Best Regards,
Sri

mikemcgarry, what's wrong with D ?

Dear 2013gmat,
That's a great question, and I am happy to help. This is a high quality question, as the official questions always are. Choice (A) is definitely the best. What's wrong with (D)?

The problems with (D) are subtle.
1) Choice (A) says "in the brain of an adult learner" --- very precise, very sophisticated. The brain is definitely physically inside the learner. Choice (D) says "each language in adults" --- in exactly what sense is a language "in" somebody? This is metaphorical, a bit casual, a bit sloppy. This would totally pass as correct in colloquial English, but it's not quite as sophisticated.
2) We need a strong contrast construction after the semicolon. In (A), the word "whereas" is a strong contrast word, and it highlights the contrast as the focus. In (D), the word "while" is not as strong as a contrast word, and it gives the impressive that the first part is really the focus, and the second part is a contrasting afterthought.
3) The tense of the verb in (D) is wrong --- it's past, but the tense after the underlined part is present.
All of these make (D) less than ideal, so it is not nearly as good as (A).

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2015, 01:50
"and " can not be used to show a contrast
"while" is similar to "during" regarding meaning , and so, is not correct here. we do not want to show one action happen during another action.

on gmat, when and while is missed many times.
A is left
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2015, 04:17
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Re: According to findings derived from... [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2016, 19:17
gmatter0913 wrote:
According to findings derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the area of the brain in which a second or third language is stored depends on the age of the language learner; whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner, language areas overlap in a young child.

(A) whereas each language occupies a distinct area of the brain in an adult learner,
(B) whereas for adults each language occupies a distinct area of the brain and
(C) each language occupies a distinct area of the brain when they are learned by an adult, while
(D) each language in adults occupied a distinct area of the brain, while
(E) each language occupying a distinct area of the brain for an adult learner, and

Things you can eliminate the options on-
1) A general fact should always have present tense. Eliminate D and so also E for inconsistency - occupying and overlap
2) Incorrect usage of 'when' and Subject verb agreement 'They'. Eliminate C
3) Usage of 'for' <- not sure about this one. Also, whereas ... and incorrect construction - Eliminate B
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2017, 09:04
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: According to findings derived from functional magnetic   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2017, 09:04
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