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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2011, 03:06
I don't understand how it is an assumption question. I was confused between D and E and chose E because my understanding of the question says that its an inference question and E is the closest.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2011, 03:44
“According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed repression.”

From this we know there are two situations, unconscious and conscious.

Situation (A)
“Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief” – this is one of our premise, which explains situation A.

Situation (B)
By deductive logic, we infer there are other occasions when people consciously inhibit their expressions and emotions.

Situation (A) -Results
“They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety”

Situation (B) Results
By deductive logic, we infer a different set of results from situation (B), where there is an impedance of expressions and which causes heart rate to rise suddenly.

Reseachers are differentiating these two conditions.

(A) is wrong because “..accurate measure of the extent…” is no where in the stimulus.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2011, 07:30
Argument: Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

My boldface is what mentioned in choice D. So, choice D is easy correct answer.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2012, 04:12
I had A and D as the top.. but A is too extreme with all... So went with D.. without option D being true the argument dont stand a chance whether the study hold true for the end result...
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2012, 00:01
bibha wrote:
D is fine. But, can anyone explain...what is wrong with E?


(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is some thing of which patients are consciously aware.

we cannot say that patients are aware about how the mechanism operates. They just become aware about their previously unconscious beliefs.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2012, 10:25
I chose D, but I'm starting to think my logic for attacking it was all wrong, so if someone can help me reason out whether my logic was sound or not, kudos will be given :P.

Basically, the way I approached this was to write down the conclusion: "Occasions" + decrease in anxiety occurred simultaneously. The occasions that the author is hinting at indicates episodes of "repression" being uncovered. Though I'm not confident, I feel like this is kind of an assumption question because it's effectively saying, in order for the author's conclusion to be true, this must be true as well.

D was the only one that struck me as a necessary assumption. What if because lowered anxiety => patient being more comfortable and actually saying what happened? In order for the conclusion to be true and that repressions were uncovered, the psychologist or whatever must be able to distinguish between the two.

Am I on the right track because my logic is so different from most people ITT
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 15:41
This one is not assumption, but inference question. Assumption is a hidden premise that must be true for a conclusion to hold true. But there's no conclusion here, only fact sets.
P1: unconscious belief # conscious belief.
P2: When a patient is aware of and expresses unconscious belief, researchers see there's a reduce of patient's anxiety.

Combine two premises above.
Inference: researchers can distinguish unconscious belief from conscious one. Answer D indicates that.

bigfernhead wrote:
I think this is an inference question, and i still came with D.

scthakur wrote:
It took a while to understand that it is an assumption question and not an inference question.

Answer is clearly D.

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2013, 11:59
The question is not 100% percent Inference types but certainly this is not an assumption question as there is no conclusion in the argument. moreover following techniques of identifying an assumption will only do mess..The best way IMO is to treat it as must be true question and reach D by POE
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2016, 10:54
IMO D. I'll give you a hint, read the complete passage again slowly, and put emphasis on the word "such" every time it's used. That should clear the picture.

Show some love! Kudos if this helped :)
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2016, 02:59
sayantanc2k
Could u please take this one?
The OA (D) looks more like an assumption. Also shed light on the difference between assumption and inference with respect to this argument.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 06:59
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nishant12600 wrote:
sayantanc2k
Could u please take this one?
The OA (D) looks more like an assumption. Also shed light on the difference between assumption and inference with respect to this argument.


An assumption links a premise to a conclusion. In this passage, there is no such premise-conclusion structure; it simple narrates that the scientists studied a phenomenon and observed some characteristic of the phenomenon. The fact that the scientists could observe the phenomenon depends on the fact that they are able to make the distinction - thus option D must be correct. This question is similar to the following:

There is a flying creature on the earth called bird. I saw a bird - it was using its wings to fly.
Inference: I am not blind.


There is no premise-conclusion structure in this passage. But one can infer that I am not blind because I can see (the bird).
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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 01:37
Quote:
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.


GMATNinja, Could you help to explain for this Inference question? I have a hard time to answer this question. Why (A) is incorrect?
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 04:09
Repression --> Prevents unconscious beliefs from becoming conscious.
Therapy --> patient becomes aware of previously unconscious belief --> decrease in level of anxiety in patient.

Initial guess -- therapy --> decrease in repression --> decrease in level of anxiety in patient??

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs. Too specific

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.May be. When patients under go therapy?

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.May be some, but not most.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.This statement must be true only because question stem mentions 'if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted'

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware. We are not told whether patients know how repression works.

Choice D is the answer
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 12:06
hazelnut wrote:
GMATNinja, Could you help to explain for this Inference question? I have a hard time to answer this question. Why (A) is incorrect?

According to the passage, when a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief, the patient's level of anxiety was decreased. But this does not necessarily mean that a decrease in anxiety level is a sign that the patient has become conscious of a previously repressed belief. There could be several other reasons to explain the decrease in anxiety (perhaps the patient joined a support group, started taking medication, got involved in a social activity, etc.)

For example, say that exercise reduces stress. Does that mean we can monitor changes in a person's stress levels to measure how much that person exercises? Of course not... several other factors can affect stress levels.

Similarly, several other factors can affect anxiety levels, so we cannot monitor changes in a patient's anxiety level during therapy to accurately measure the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs. Choice (A) should be eliminated.

I hope that helps!
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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2017, 05:44
nitya34 wrote:
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.


The answer is D

Premise 1:According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.”
Premise 2:Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief.

Conclusion : They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

Assumption : The Researchers were able to differentiate between conscious beliefs and unconscious belief expressed

D is essentially saying this " Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed. "

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 04:52
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.

The stimulus says that the occasions when patients become conscious of previously repressed beliefs are marked by decreased anxiety. They don’t say that the level of decrease varies directly or is correlated with the level of becoming conscious. Hence we cannot infer this from the stimulus.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

Not relevant to the given statements. Whether there are other mechanisms of identifying unconscious beliefs is out of scope.

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.

Again, not relevant. All we can say is that people can be made to express some unconscious beliefs through therapy. We cannot say that all conscious beliefs originate as unconscious.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

The given stimulus tells us that the researchers have been able to make people express their unconscious beliefs through therapy. A valid point here is – how do researchers know that the beliefs being expressed by the patients are unconscious beliefs and not merely conscious beliefs that the patients did not express previously? Since the stimulus says, “Researchers investigating repression observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief” and we have to take the statement to be true, it means they were able to distinguish between unconscious beliefs and conscious but unexpressed beliefs. Hence (D) is the answer.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.

Focus on the first part of this option. The statements in the stimulus tell us that repression keeps unconscious beliefs unconscious. They don’t tell us whether repression works on conscious beliefs or not – perhaps it keeps people from expressing conscious beliefs or perhaps it doesn’t work on conscious beliefs at all – the statements don’t say. We cannot say that the beliefs on which repression works are ALL unconscious. Hence we cannot infer this. Not the answer.

The correct answer is (D).
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New post 21 Aug 2017, 05:05
Inference question = "no new information"

Ans : (D) This answer has to be correct in order for the question stem to play out ie for research investigation to be properly conducted & statements to be true.

(A) We don't know what happens when the opposite happens (ie increase in anxiety)
(B, C, E) Not able to distinguish from passage
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2017, 08:35
what is the conclusion of this argument?
How to identify what the qn stem requires? i.e what should I look for ? an assumption, inference or conclusion?
Also, elaborate on the qn stem types possible in "must be true" questions
TIA :)
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 00:48
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shahul. wrote:
what is the conclusion of this argument?
How to identify what the qn stem requires? i.e what should I look for ? an assumption, inference or conclusion?
Also, elaborate on the qn stem types possible in "must be true" questions
TIA :)

This passage does not have a conclusion. Instead, we are given a series of facts and must find an answer choice that must be true if all of the given facts are true. This is similar to questions that ask, "If the statements above are true, which of the following can properly/logically be inferred/concluded..."

With such inference questions, as with any CR passage, you must pay close attention to the details and to the language/modifiers used by the author (see the "It’s all about the modifiers" section in the Ultimate CR Guide for Beginners for more information).

Then, it's simply a matter of using process of elimination to cross off answer choices that do not necessarily have to be true. Check out my earlier post in this thread for more help: https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to ... l#p1898296
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2017, 04:57
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have
unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming
conscious by a psychological mechanism termed
"repression." Researchers investigating the nature of
.this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient
undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a
previously unconscious belief. They found that such
occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the
patient's level of anxiety
Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2017, 04:57

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