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# According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious

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05 Aug 2010, 10:33
Good question. I got for D, not to mention - this question was already posted by somebody!!
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05 Aug 2010, 18:15
D for me.
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08 Aug 2010, 05:37
how in the world can OA be D ?
the passage does not talk about distinction between unconscious and concious beliefs. The argument is basically concerned about unconscious beliefs.

Option A is kind of on par with the argument. A points out that when a patient becomes concious of a previously repressed belief, patients anxity level changes. A would have been precise had it mentioned about decrease in patient’s level of anxiety instead of changes in anxity level.
A is not strongly convincing either which is unconvincing due to the fact that change in anxity could be either increased or decreased.
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08 Aug 2010, 22:21
Can someone explain carefully why each answer is incorrect and correct.
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07 Sep 2010, 00:38
I'll go with D.
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04 Mar 2011, 00:43
Gryphon wrote:
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.--> an observation happens A (concious + expressed) happens then B (anxiety decrease) happens, It doesnt need to be a must
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.irrelevant
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed. if researchers couldnt define whether the patient's belief is conscious or not before this patient can express it then this fact will destroy the argument
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.irrelevant

Source: GMAT Paper Test No. 55

I pick D after spending 6 minutes. How poorly i performed.
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14 Mar 2011, 09:50
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14 Mar 2011, 21:49
Minheequang wrote:
scthakur wrote:
It took a while to understand that it is an assumption question and not an inference question.

Why is it an assumption question ? From which evidence stated in the question ? Can you give me a clearer explanation ?

If it is an assumption, yes, D is the best, obviously

I am also confused, why it is an assumption question. According to me it is an must be true question because we have been told to take the stimulus as such whereas in assumption questions we are suppose to take the answer choices as such. I think, it is a must be true question but answer choices are created in a manner that it looks like an assumption question since D is not only paraphrasing but combination answer. Options A, B & C are wrong because they are out of scope. Between D and E, E is also out of scope because nowhere in the stimulus it is talked about the mechanism of repression, So we are only left with D which must be true.
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15 Mar 2011, 08:00
To me it seems the answer is D
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15 Mar 2011, 20:51
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
Premise: Repression kept conscious thought from being unconscious.
Premise: Recent Research shows that decrease in anxiety reveals those unconsciousness.

I think that this should be an inference question because Assumption question must have a clear conclusion.

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
-- Too much specific "accurate measure"
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
-- this is nowhere mentioned.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
-- Again too specific.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
-- Yes. OA is the same
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware. -- New information OOS

nice explanation! it was btw (C) and (D) for me, i picked (C)
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30 Apr 2011, 01:44
took me 2:09 minutes to get to D, A can be discarded because it talks about 'changes' not about reduction in anxiety level . A seems to establish (direct) proportionality as a relationship between change in anxiety level and consciousness of the patient in understanding repressed belief.

shell game again.
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12 May 2011, 13:36
Straightforward. D.
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12 May 2011, 23:47
D has to be the answer , and the questions is not so straightforward as was claimed by someone.
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13 May 2011, 00:02
Between options B and D, I went for B as D looked more of an assumption answer choice.
B is subtle and can be inferred from the argument.
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14 Aug 2011, 16:01
+1 D
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27 Sep 2011, 23:40
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
I've got this one right but I am posting here to know whether my reasoning was correct. Please provide your explanation.

According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.
If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.

I think (A) is the best. It seems consistent with the original info that suggests changes in anxiety level --> changes in repression mechanism --> awareness of unconscious belief

(B) The original info suggests patients EXPRESSED beliefs AFTER becoming aware of them, so this cannot be concluded from the info.
(C) Can't be determined by info.
(D) can't be determined
(E) don't know, can't be determined.

Why A is not an answer? Because the decrease of anxiety level may be a sign of previously unconscious beliefs but not "an accurate measure of the extent."
Why not B? Because the stimulus said nothing about "discovering unconscious beliefs" when they still remains unconscious.
Why not C or E? No information given.
Why D? In the stimulus, as a conclusion, researchers FOUND that the level of anxiety decreases unusually WHEN the patient becomes aware of previously unconscious belief. Therefore, by unusual decrease they can distinguish what has been unconscious from what has been conscious but not expressed.
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28 Sep 2011, 03:06
I don't understand how it is an assumption question. I was confused between D and E and chose E because my understanding of the question says that its an inference question and E is the closest.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2011, 03:44
“According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed repression.”

From this we know there are two situations, unconscious and conscious.

Situation (A)
“Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief” – this is one of our premise, which explains situation A.

Situation (B)
By deductive logic, we infer there are other occasions when people consciously inhibit their expressions and emotions.

Situation (A) -Results
“They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety”

Situation (B) Results
By deductive logic, we infer a different set of results from situation (B), where there is an impedance of expressions and which causes heart rate to rise suddenly.

Reseachers are differentiating these two conditions.

(A) is wrong because “..accurate measure of the extent…” is no where in the stimulus.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2011, 07:30
Argument: Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

My boldface is what mentioned in choice D. So, choice D is easy correct answer.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2011, 03:41
this seems to be a 700+ level question....isn't it?
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious   [#permalink] 22 Dec 2011, 03:41

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