GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 15 Aug 2018, 17:28

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Jun 2007
Posts: 354
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 30 Jun 2018, 00:18
7
57
00:00

Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

63% (00:41) correct 37% (00:41) wrong based on 94 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 159: Critical Reasoning

Subscribe to GMAT Question of the Day: E-mail | RSS

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. than they were

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.

Originally posted by r019h on 07 Jul 2007, 18:35.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Jun 2018, 00:18, edited 4 times in total.
Director
Joined: 30 Jun 2007
Posts: 745
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Feb 2008, 21:12
10
4
A. than
B. than born
C. than they were

This is tough one – twister. So, one way to resolve is to flip the sentence and check which one makes sense.

A: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than under age of thirty.[Hold it]

B: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than born under age of thirty.[This makes invalid – eliminate it]

C: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than they were under age of thirty.[Same women delivered over age thirty and under thirty – changes the meaning of the sentence – eliminate it]

D: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than there had been under age of thirty.[Implies women were delivering babies – eliminate it]

E: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than had been under age of thirty.[Does not make sense – eliminate it]

##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 26 Apr 2007
Posts: 52
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Jul 2007, 18:51
4
4
r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were

Please give explanations to support your choices. OA will be posted soon.

more women over X than under it.

the sentence is comparing the age of women and not the age of babies born, so rule out B and E.
C and D - ruled out because of lack of parallelism. - more women over X than "they were"/"than there had been" is incorrect..
Director
Joined: 06 Sep 2006
Posts: 701
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Jul 2007, 19:30
4
4
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than (to women) under it.

A.
Senior Manager
Joined: 29 Jul 2009
Posts: 291
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Sep 2009, 23:31
4
1

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies] had been born under it

By introducing the verb, the meaning of the sentence changes, saying that more babies were born under the age of thirty. This doesn't make any sense.

Option A, relies on the ellipsis to make the right comparison

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies were born to women] under it [age of thirty]
Manager
Joined: 27 Jan 2013
Posts: 228
GMAT 1: 780 Q49 V51
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Mar 2013, 14:28
2
Hi,

This is a tricky one. I think what helps differentiate the answers is to think about what the comparison is: Women under the age of thirty VS. Women over the age of thirty

And the structure is: More X than Y

or with the story filled in: More Women over the age thirty than under the age of thirty

The other thing that helps is to fill in the noun/noun phrase that the pronoun "it" is replacing. Replacing pronouns is often helpful in SC. It's good to make this a habit.

Answer B is wrong because you have were born on one side of the comparison and only born on the other side. You need to have were born on both sides or nothing at all (in this case the were born is distributed to the second half of the comparison). It's a bit like a list in which you can have the bar, the plane, and the floor or the bar, plane, and floor but not the plane, bar, and the floor. Either you need to have every element or just let the first element distribute. In general, you cannot mix and match.

Another strategy here is to re-arrange the sentence: More babies were born to woman over the age of thirty than (were born to) woman under the age of thirty in the state of Mass. in 1998.

Let me know if you need more advice on this one.

Happy Studies,

HG.
_________________

"It is a curious property of research activity that after the problem has been solved the solution seems obvious. This is true not only for those who have not previously been acquainted with the problem, but also for those who have worked over it for years." -Dr. Edwin Land

GMAT vs GRE Comparison

If you found my post useful KUDOS are much appreciated.

Here is the first set along with some strategies for approaching this work: http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-economist-reading-comprehension-challenge-151479.html

Manager
Joined: 07 Feb 2011
Posts: 98
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Mar 2013, 18:17
HerrGrau wrote:
Hi,

This is a tricky one. I think what helps differentiate the answers is to think about what the comparison is: Women under the age of thirty VS. Women over the age of thirty

And the structure is: More X than Y

or with the story filled in: More Women over the age thirty than under the age of thirty

The other thing that helps is to fill in the noun/noun phrase that the pronoun "it" is replacing. Replacing pronouns is often helpful in SC. It's good to make this a habit.

Answer B is wrong because you have were born on one side of the comparison and only born on the other side. You need to have were born on both sides or nothing at all (in this case the were born is distributed to the second half of the comparison). It's a bit like a list in which you can have the bar, the plane, and the floor or the bar, plane, and floor but not the plane, bar, and the floor. Either you need to have every element or just let the first element distribute. In general, you cannot mix and match.

Another strategy here is to re-arrange the sentence: [/b[b]]More babies were born to woman over the age of thirty than (were born to) woman under the age of thirty in the state of Mass. in 1998.

Let me know if you need more advice on this one.

Happy Studies,

HG.

Hmmm how could you simply imply the 'were born to' in the second half of the sentence? Are you saying the first were born to is the first and only element to be distributed? But that phrase 'were born to' is after more (within the idiotmatic construction)
_________________

Manager
Joined: 27 Jan 2013
Posts: 228
GMAT 1: 780 Q49 V51
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Mar 2013, 05:12
Hi,

I hope that you are well. I'm not exactly sure what your question is but let's take a look at another example:

In 2013 more profits were earned by Coca Cola than were earned by Pepsi

Were earned by CC is parallel to Were earned by Pepsi

In 2013 more profits were earned by Coca Cola than by Pepsi
By CC is parallel to By Pepsi and the were earned applies to both

In 2013 more profits were earned by Coca Cola than earned by Pepsi
Were earned by CC is NOT parallel to earned by Pepsi

The first two are equivalent. The last is incorrect and very similar to answer choice B.

Happy Studies,

HG.
_________________

"It is a curious property of research activity that after the problem has been solved the solution seems obvious. This is true not only for those who have not previously been acquainted with the problem, but also for those who have worked over it for years." -Dr. Edwin Land

GMAT vs GRE Comparison

If you found my post useful KUDOS are much appreciated.

Here is the first set along with some strategies for approaching this work: http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-economist-reading-comprehension-challenge-151479.html

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2614
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Mar 2013, 08:08
6
2
Hi there,

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

It is important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence.
• This sentence presents comparison. We need to find out what are the entities that are compared here.
• In 1998, Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to woman who were over the age of 30 than to those woman who were under the age of 30.
• The entities compared here the woman over 30 and woman under 30.

Now let’s see what the Errors are in this sentence:
Now there is just one word underlined in this sentence. The idiom used in this sentence is “…more babies are born to X than Y”. Here X and Y should be parallel.
X = woman over the age of thirty (noun phrase)
Y = (woman) under it (it = the age of thirty)
Since bot the entities are parallel here, there is no error in this sentence.

PoE:

A. than: Correct for the reason stated above.

B. than born: Incorrect. This choice leads to illogical comparison. Per this choice, entity Y = (babies) born under it (it = the age of thirty). This means the babies were under the age of 30. This is absolutely non-sensical.

C. than they were: Incorrect. Firstly, pronoun “they” is ambiguous here. If “they” refers to “babies”, then also it leads to illogical meaning and if “they” refers to “women”, then also lead to illogical meaning.

D. than there had been: Incorrect. This choice uses the incorrect verb tense as well as presents illogical comparison.

E. than had been born: Inocrrect. This choice repeats the verb tense error of choice D and illogical comparison error of choice B.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Joined: 27 Jan 2013
Posts: 228
GMAT 1: 780 Q49 V51
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Mar 2013, 08:13
1
Well, the events did not happen one before the other but at the same time so the past perfect is incorrect. You should always question the use of the perfect tense and make sure that the order of the events is important to the meaning of the sentence. You can have a bunch of different events happening in the past and all of them can be in the past simple.

Even excusing the tense the meaning is obscured because it would seem that babies were born under 30 and not that the babies were born to women under thirty.

HG.
_________________

"It is a curious property of research activity that after the problem has been solved the solution seems obvious. This is true not only for those who have not previously been acquainted with the problem, but also for those who have worked over it for years." -Dr. Edwin Land

GMAT vs GRE Comparison

If you found my post useful KUDOS are much appreciated.

Here is the first set along with some strategies for approaching this work: http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-economist-reading-comprehension-challenge-151479.html

Retired Moderator
Joined: 16 Jun 2012
Posts: 1075
Location: United States
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Aug 2013, 15:18
5
1
Note:
- see the word "it" at the end of the sentence. "it" refers to what? Clearly, "it" refers to "thirty" ==> The comparison should be "women over thirty" vs "women under thirty".
- When see a comparison, be aware of "middle man" - a noun/noun phrase between two people/things being compared.

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [to women] under it.

1. than
Correct. Comparison "women over thirty" vs "women under thirty" (under "it"); "over" vs "under.

2. than born
Wrong. ambiguous. Because of the "middle man" - women ==> the meaning may be changed to "more babies were born to women over thirty than (women) born under it

3. than they were
Wrong. "they" refers to who? babies or women?

Wrong. Same problem as in (3). "they" is not clear.

Wrong. Same as in (2). Because of the middle man - women, the intended meaning may be distorted.

Hope it's clear
_________________

Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you.

"Designing cars consumes you; it has a hold on your spirit which is incredibly powerful. It's not something you can do part time, you have do it with all your heart and soul or you're going to get it wrong."

Chris Bangle - Former BMW Chief of Design.

SVP
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 2226
Location: New York, NY
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Aug 2013, 10:20
Dhairya275 wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

1. than
2. than born
3. than they were

Yes, this is an apples vs oranges question.

"more babies were born to X than Y"

x = women over 30
y = women under 30

No need to mention the verb "born" in the answer choices - so the simplest one works.
Director
Joined: 03 Feb 2013
Posts: 902
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.88
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 Dec 2014, 02:17
10
7
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

Basically
more babies were born to women over the age of thirty
than
babies were born to women under the age of thirty

age of thirty -> it
"babies were born to women" is ellipsed.

A. than -> Hence correct
B. than born
C. than they were
_________________

Thanks,
Kinjal

My Application Experience : http://gmatclub.com/forum/hardwork-never-gets-unrewarded-for-ever-189267-40.html#p1516961

Manager
Joined: 07 Feb 2015
Posts: 73
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jan 2016, 19:27
1
3
A good video on this question is here:
Director
Affiliations: CrackVerbal
Joined: 03 Oct 2013
Posts: 520
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Jan 2017, 01:05
2
Top Contributor
this question tests you on parallelism and meaning.

"than" requires parallelism. Also, note that "it" refers to "age of thirty".

"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it." - Note that for parallelism, we start from right to left. See what is parallel to "under it" on the Left hand side of "than".

A maintains parallelism and hence is the correct answer. Since the sentence maintains parallelism what is implied here -
More babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies were born to women] under it.

Answer option does not maintain parallelism. let us look at parallelism -
"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than born under it."

Not perfectly parallel. "to women" is missing in RHS.
This answer option nonsensically implies that "[babies were] born under age of thirty".

"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they were under it.". - two clauses are in parallel; however, "to women" is omitted. this changes the meaning of the sentence.

this sentence implies that babies were born under age of 30. - Illogical.

D - Incorrect.
Usage of past perfect is incorrect. We are referring to a specific time period - 1998.
Also, this option changes the meaning of the sentence.

E - Incorrect.
Usage of past perfect is incorrect. We are referring to a specific time period - 1998.
Changes the meaning of the sentence (like option B) -
"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than had been born under it."

Not perfectly parallel. "to women" is missing in RHS.
This answer option nonsensically implies that "babies had been born under age of thirty".
_________________

Retired Moderator
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3188
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Mar 2017, 02:32
2
AR15J wrote:
I have read all the explanation, but I still have one query

choice B-more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than born under it

My question: Can't we have more than one eclipses in one sentences?

more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than[ babies were] born [ to women] under it

Choice C : more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they were under it.

My question: Why even one eclipse is not right in this case?

more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they(referring to babies--correct) were [born to women ] under it.

How to identify which uses of the eclipse are correct?

Omission of items (even more than two items) is definitely acceptable in the second element of a parallel structure, if those items have already been used in the first element and the meaning is not obscured.

On the other hand, not omitting will be considered a poor practice, if items are not omitted when they can be without ambiguity. This is because of concision issue.

Moreover when a verb is to be omitted, omit the complete verb, not a part of it. In option B a part of the verb "were born" is omitted. Either use "were born" or omit it altogether. But using a part i.e. "born" is wrong. If option B were "than were born", it would be alright.

In option C, the pronoun "they" is wrong. "They" wrongly refers to "babies", the SAME babies who were born to women over the age of thirty. Here a new copy of the noun "babies" is required (who were born to women under the age of thirty), hence using "they" is wrong. the correct pronoun is "that" (to create a new copy).
Manager
Status: Aiming MBA!!
Joined: 19 Aug 2017
Posts: 137
Location: India
GMAT 1: 620 Q49 V25
GPA: 3.75
WE: Web Development (Consulting)
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Nov 2017, 07:06
r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were

HERE, the most important point to note was the INTENDED COMPARISON. We are comparing WOMEN OVER THE AGE OF 30 THAN THE WOMEN UNDER THE AGE OF 30. If this comparison is clear, there is nothing left in this question.

Also, ONE MORE IMPORTANT POINT TO NOTE is WHAT is this "it" referring to??
Whenever "it" is used in a COMPARISON sentence, "it" refers to the entire NOUN PHRASE and NOT JUST THE NOUN. VERY IMPORTANT POINT TO KEEP A NOTE OF. So, here "it" is referring to "THE AGE OF THIRTY" and NOT JUST the age.

Coming back to the question,

A. According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than to women under the age of thirty.
Sounds LOGICAL. The implied meaning is ALSO CRISP AND CLEAR. Perfect answer!

B. According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than born under it.
Here, the comparison becomes,

more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than (were) born under the age of thirty.
Thus, the comparison is ILLOGICAL. Here we are comparing the babies born to women over the age of thirty to the babies born under the age of 30. This is totally NON-SENSE
.

C. According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they were under it.
Here, there are 2 possible errors

1. "they" can refer to both the women as well as the babies. Therefore, PRONOUN AMBIGUITY error.
2. the comparison is actually between the women over the age of 30 VS women under the age of 30. So, logically "they" should refer to women.

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than women were under the age of 30. --> TOTALLY NON SENSICAL COMPARISON.

Maybe, if we can try the other way round,

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than babies were under the age of 30. --> AGAIN TOTALLY NON SENSICAL COMPARISON.

Options D and E are wrong because of the usage of "HAD BEEN". No verb sequencing is required here. As we are talking wrt to the TIMEFRAME -- in 1998. So, the usage is totally INCORRECT.

I hope I had covered all the possible scenarios.
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4523
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Nov 2017, 11:05
Top Contributor
It will be helpful to remember that whenever a helping verb or auxiliary verb is being used in one arm, one needn't repeat the verb in the second arm. Here in the given case, 'were born' is the verb phrase where 'were' is the helping verb, Therefore, it will be in order to elide the verb in the second arm after 'than'. That is the reason that choices C, D and E, which repeat the verb after the comparator 'than ' are not correct. Even B which is jumping half the well is inappropriate. A is the eventual winner. Obviously, grammar skills are so important even in such advanced tests such as GMAT
_________________

you can know a lot about something and not really understand it."-- a quote
No one knows this better than a GMAT student does.
Narendran +9198845 44509

Manager
Status: Aiming MBA!!
Joined: 19 Aug 2017
Posts: 137
Location: India
GMAT 1: 620 Q49 V25
GPA: 3.75
WE: Web Development (Consulting)
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Nov 2017, 00:22
r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were

Hello Experts,

I have one question, if I replace the option B. than born with B. than were born --> Does this change makes option B correct? Please comment.

As per my understanding, the above sentence becomes,

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than were born under it.

This sentence is making the comparison logical. So, it seems correct to me. Please review.

mikemcgarry

Thanks.
-aceGMAT21
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4665
Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Nov 2017, 11:50
aceGMAT21 wrote:
r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were

Hello Experts,

I have one question, if I replace the option B. than born with B. than were born --> Does this change makes option B correct? Please comment.

As per my understanding, the above sentence becomes,

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than were born under it.

This sentence is making the comparison logical. So, it seems correct to me. Please review.

mikemcgarry

Thanks.
-aceGMAT21

Dear aceGMAT21,

I'm happy to respond. My friend, here's what I'll say. First of all, please read this blog:
Dropping Common Words in Parallel on the GMAT

I'll also say that students who think of the GMAT SC as a test of grammar are mistaken. The GMAT SC always tests grammar and logic and rhetoric together--on a correct answer, those three elements come together coherently to produce meaning.

In this question, (C) is pretty bad, but I would say that (B) & (D) & (E) are arguably grammatically correct. Those three are simply awkward as a pig on roller skates! They are ugly and jarring. Adding another word to (B) does not make the problem any better--it's like giving a drowning man a glass of water.

Think about the sentence this way:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than babies that were born to women under the age of thirty.
That monstrosity would be the sentence if we repeated in the second branch of the parallelism every single word from the first branch. This is 100% grammatically correct, and despite this, it's an abomination so bad that it should be taken out back and shot.

The elegant thing to do, the rhetorically sound thing to do, is to drop all the repeated words in red--the last phrase gets replaced with a pronoun. The result of that action is (A). Choice (A) is sublime--it is an exquisite work of art, a masterpiece. In writing (A), the writer took the bold and decisive step of dropping every single repeated word, understanding that it all would be implied.

By comparison, the authors of (B) & (D) & (E) are lily-livered and irresolute, stuck in a wishy-washy halfway place, dropping some things and leaving others, awkward and incomplete because they were not able to make a bold decision.

Do you know what happens to people in the business world who can't make bold decisions? They lose money and squander opportunities.

It's very important to realize: how you do anything is how you do everything. Ultimately, success on the GMAT SC or CR or RC reflects the skills you will need for success in the business world.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts &nbs [#permalink] 09 Nov 2017, 11:50

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 29 posts ]

Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Events & Promotions

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.