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# According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts

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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2007, 18:35
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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by PiyushK on 27 Sep 2014, 11:13, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2014, 02:17
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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

Basically
more babies were born to women over the age of thirty
than
babies were born to women under the age of thirty

age of thirty -> it
"babies were born to women" is ellipsed.

A. than -> Hence correct
B. than born
C. than they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born
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Re: sc - 30 -comparisons - set 13 [#permalink]

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A. than
B. than born
C. than they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born

This is tough one – twister. So, one way to resolve is to flip the sentence and check which one makes sense.

A: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than under age of thirty.[Hold it]

B: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than born under age of thirty.[This makes invalid – eliminate it]

C: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than they were under age of thirty.[Same women delivered over age thirty and under thirty – changes the meaning of the sentence – eliminate it]

D: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than there had been under age of thirty.[Implies women were delivering babies – eliminate it]

E: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more women over the age of thirty delivered babies than had been under age of thirty.[Does not make sense – eliminate it]

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 08:08
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Hi there,

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

It is important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence.
• This sentence presents comparison. We need to find out what are the entities that are compared here.
• In 1998, Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to woman who were over the age of 30 than to those woman who were under the age of 30.
• The entities compared here the woman over 30 and woman under 30.

Now let’s see what the Errors are in this sentence:
Now there is just one word underlined in this sentence. The idiom used in this sentence is “…more babies are born to X than Y”. Here X and Y should be parallel.
X = woman over the age of thirty (noun phrase)
Y = (woman) under it (it = the age of thirty)
Since bot the entities are parallel here, there is no error in this sentence.

PoE:

A. than: Correct for the reason stated above.

B. than born: Incorrect. This choice leads to illogical comparison. Per this choice, entity Y = (babies) born under it (it = the age of thirty). This means the babies were under the age of 30. This is absolutely non-sensical.

C. than they were: Incorrect. Firstly, pronoun “they” is ambiguous here. If “they” refers to “babies”, then also it leads to illogical meaning and if “they” refers to “women”, then also lead to illogical meaning.

D. than there had been: Incorrect. This choice uses the incorrect verb tense as well as presents illogical comparison.

E. than had been born: Inocrrect. This choice repeats the verb tense error of choice D and illogical comparison error of choice B.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2013, 15:18
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Note:
- see the word "it" at the end of the sentence. "it" refers to what? Clearly, "it" refers to "thirty" ==> The comparison should be "women over thirty" vs "women under thirty".
- When see a comparison, be aware of "middle man" - a noun/noun phrase between two people/things being compared.

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [to women] under it.

1. than
Correct. Comparison "women over thirty" vs "women under thirty" (under "it"); "over" vs "under.

2. than born
Wrong. ambiguous. Because of the "middle man" - women ==> the meaning may be changed to "more babies were born to women over thirty than (women) born under it

3. than they were
Wrong. "they" refers to who? babies or women?

4. than they had been
Wrong. Same problem as in (3). "they" is not clear.

5. than had been born
Wrong. Same as in (2). Because of the middle man - women, the intended meaning may be distorted.

Hope it's clear
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2007, 19:30
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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than (to women) under it.

A.

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Re: sc - 30 -comparisons - set 13 [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2009, 23:31
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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies] had been born under it

By introducing the verb, the meaning of the sentence changes, saying that more babies were born under the age of thirty. This doesn't make any sense.

Option A, relies on the ellipsis to make the right comparison

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies were born to women] under it [age of thirty]

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2007, 18:51
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r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born

Please give explanations to support your choices. OA will be posted soon.

A should be the answer.
more women over X than under it.

the sentence is comparing the age of women and not the age of babies born, so rule out B and E.
C and D - ruled out because of lack of parallelism. - more women over X than "they were"/"than there had been" is incorrect..

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2013, 14:28
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Hi,

This is a tricky one. I think what helps differentiate the answers is to think about what the comparison is: Women under the age of thirty VS. Women over the age of thirty

And the structure is: More X than Y

or with the story filled in: More Women over the age thirty than under the age of thirty

The other thing that helps is to fill in the noun/noun phrase that the pronoun "it" is replacing. Replacing pronouns is often helpful in SC. It's good to make this a habit.

Answer B is wrong because you have were born on one side of the comparison and only born on the other side. You need to have were born on both sides or nothing at all (in this case the were born is distributed to the second half of the comparison). It's a bit like a list in which you can have the bar, the plane, and the floor or the bar, plane, and floor but not the plane, bar, and the floor. Either you need to have every element or just let the first element distribute. In general, you cannot mix and match.

Another strategy here is to re-arrange the sentence: More babies were born to woman over the age of thirty than (were born to) woman under the age of thirty in the state of Mass. in 1998.

Let me know if you need more advice on this one.

Happy Studies,

HG.
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2017, 01:05
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this question tests you on parallelism and meaning.

"than" requires parallelism. Also, note that "it" refers to "age of thirty".

"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it." - Note that for parallelism, we start from right to left. See what is parallel to "under it" on the Left hand side of "than".

A maintains parallelism and hence is the correct answer. Since the sentence maintains parallelism what is implied here -
More babies were born to women over the age of thirty than [babies were born to women] under it.

B - Incorrect answer.
Answer option does not maintain parallelism. let us look at parallelism -
"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than born under it."

Not perfectly parallel. "to women" is missing in RHS.
This answer option nonsensically implies that "[babies were] born under age of thirty".

C - Incorrect answer.

"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they were under it.". - two clauses are in parallel; however, "to women" is omitted. this changes the meaning of the sentence.

this sentence implies that babies were born under age of 30. - Illogical.

D - Incorrect.
Usage of past perfect is incorrect. We are referring to a specific time period - 1998.
Also, this option changes the meaning of the sentence.

E - Incorrect.
Usage of past perfect is incorrect. We are referring to a specific time period - 1998.
Changes the meaning of the sentence (like option B) -
"more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than had been born under it."

Not perfectly parallel. "to women" is missing in RHS.
This answer option nonsensically implies that "babies had been born under age of thirty".
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2017, 02:32
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AR15J wrote:
I have read all the explanation, but I still have one query

choice B-more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than born under it

My question: Can't we have more than one eclipses in one sentences?

more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than[ babies were] born [ to women] under it

Choice C : more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they were under it.

My question: Why even one eclipse is not right in this case?

more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than they(referring to babies--correct) were [born to women ] under it.

How to identify which uses of the eclipse are correct?

Omission of items (even more than two items) is definitely acceptable in the second element of a parallel structure, if those items have already been used in the first element and the meaning is not obscured.

On the other hand, not omitting will be considered a poor practice, if items are not omitted when they can be without ambiguity. This is because of concision issue.

Moreover when a verb is to be omitted, omit the complete verb, not a part of it. In option B a part of the verb "were born" is omitted. Either use "were born" or omit it altogether. But using a part i.e. "born" is wrong. If option B were "than were born", it would be alright.

In option C, the pronoun "they" is wrong. "They" wrongly refers to "babies", the SAME babies who were born to women over the age of thirty. Here a new copy of the noun "babies" is required (who were born to women under the age of thirty), hence using "they" is wrong. the correct pronoun is "that" (to create a new copy).

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2011, 23:23
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asaf wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than (to women) under it.

A.

Can someone please tell me if my reasoning is correct???

After 'than' you see 'under': look back in the sentence whats the opposite of 'under' its 'over'…. So what comes after over in the original sentence …it is ' to women' ….so read sentence by putting (to women ) in brackets after than and before under…. You will see option A is correct…

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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2012, 09:56
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37. According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. than they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born

Source: Brutal SC
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 09:51
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Fill the omitted section:

According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than to women under it.

As in : In the party, more candies were given to X than to Y.

None of the options other than A fit in. We don't need to repeat babes/candies or born/given. We are comparing Women Above age 30 and Women Under Age 30.
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 08:13
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Well, the events did not happen one before the other but at the same time so the past perfect is incorrect. You should always question the use of the perfect tense and make sure that the order of the events is important to the meaning of the sentence. You can have a bunch of different events happening in the past and all of them can be in the past simple.

Even excusing the tense the meaning is obscured because it would seem that babies were born under 30 and not that the babies were born to women under thirty.

HG.
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2013, 23:30
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It will go for A

Here we are comparing ages --- over 30 and below 30 --- Also IT refers to 30

A. than ---- correct comparision --- more babies were born to women (over 30 than under 30) --- meaning is clear
B. than born ---- to maintain parallesism --- than were born to women under 30----- would be correct.
C. than they were --- not parallel --- than they were under it (is wrong)
D. than there had been --- not parallel ---- wrong use of past perfect
E. than had been born -- incorrect comparison --- had been is wrong --- we are not refering to one event in past that has ocured before another past event ----- both events in the past

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2013, 23:51
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ASHISHBAHL wrote:
It will go for A

Here we are comparing ages --- over 30 and below 30 --- Also IT refers to 30

A. than ---- correct comparision --- more babies were born to women (over 30 than under 30) --- meaning is clear
B. than born ---- to maintain parallesism --- than were born to women under 30----- would be correct.
C. than they were --- not parallel --- than they were under it (is wrong)
D. than there had been --- not parallel ---- wrong use of past perfect
E. than had been born -- incorrect comparison --- had been is wrong --- we are not refering to one event in past that has ocured before another past event ----- both events in the past

The OA for the question you're answering is (I believe) E.

More modifies babies, not women, but under 30 modifies women, so you need more info.

The other question in this thread has "women" I the subject, in which case A is the OA.

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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2013, 13:26
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According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

1. than
2. than born
3. than they were
4. than they had been
5. than had been born

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2013, 13:36
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r019h wrote:
According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

A. than
B. than born
C. that they were
D. than there had been
E. than had been born

Please give explanations to support your choices. OA will be posted soon.

+1 for A ... Sheer Parallelism

B. than born --> wrong comparison (babies)
C. that they were --> wrong comparison (Babies)
D. than there had been --> Had been ???
E. than had been born --> wrong comparison (Babies)

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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2016, 19:27
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Re: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts   [#permalink] 08 Jan 2016, 19:27

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