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According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while

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08 Apr 2013, 11:16
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According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.

(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why B is wrong? "Is it The surface temperature in ......." is repeated in the second clause or anything else beyond by observation?
Answers with complete explanation will be appreciated.

OA will be given after discussion...
thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by JarvisR on 31 Aug 2016, 05:34, edited 1 time in total.
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08 Apr 2013, 11:27
atalpanditgmat wrote:
According to scientists at the University of Alaska, while the surface temperature of the globe has risen over the last century by about one degree Fahrenheit, the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees.

(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees

D and E have "it" which is not clear, what does it refer to? C is misplaced.
Between A and B, in A seems that the temperture has increased each year by 5 degrees, in B seems that has increased by 5 degrees in 30 years. B to me is more clear, are you sure it s wrong?
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08 Apr 2013, 11:28
Quote:
Why B is wrong? "Is it The surface temperature in ......." is repeated in the second clause or anything else beyond by observation?

i am not sure why u have said this
B looks perfect to me . comparison wise and parallelism wise

u need "over" and not "previous"
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08 Apr 2013, 11:43
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I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘in the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees ---over the last thirty years means last thirty years including the present. So the use of present perfect ‘has increased ‘ is justified.--- Correct

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada --- we can’t use past tense, when we say last thirty years. Wrong

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years ---- had increased denotes it happened before some other past event; There is no such simple past event to justify past perfect – wrong

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- can’t use present perfect ‘has increased’ when we say previous

Take away: use past tense when previous is used, because previous is a closed chapter of a past event. Use present perfect when last is use, because last is a roll-over that includes the present.
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Last edited by daagh on 01 Jan 2016, 05:26, edited 1 time in total.
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08 Apr 2013, 17:41
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OA is B

before to post a question you have to be sure about the OA, otherwise is quite detrimental.

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08 Apr 2013, 22:14
Thank you guys. though i thought the answer is B, according to my source it's D. Now I realised my source is unreliable.
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09 Apr 2013, 23:43
daagh wrote:
I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘Over the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

(B) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased over the last thirty years by about five degrees --- last thirty years means last thirty years including the present. So the use of present perfect ‘has increased ‘ is justified.--- Correct

(C) there was an increase in the last thirty years by about five degrees in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada --- we can’t use past tense, when we say last thirty years. Wrong

(D) it had increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada by about five degrees over the previous thirty years ---- had increased denotes it happened before some other past event; There is no such simple past event to justify past perfect – wrong

(E) it has increased in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada over the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- can’t use present perfect ‘has increased’ when we say previous

Take away: use past tense when previous is used, because previous is a closed chapter of a past event. Use present perfect when last is use, because last is a roll-over that includes the present.

hi daagh very nicely explained but one more question,if in answer choice E in place of "PREVIOUS"..."OVER" is present then it will become correct choice means only the presence of "previous" makes it incorrect ?

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10 Apr 2013, 02:03
Hi skm
can u please post the your intended clause; becos, after replacing previous with over, the sentence doesn't seem to be makimg much meaning;
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26 Feb 2014, 13:25
Hi,

According to following link, we can limit the time using in the last one year etc.. and use present perfect tense as well.

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html

Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.

Thus, A and B are both grammatically correct, but B wins as B is perfect parallel to preceding clause.
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29 Mar 2014, 08:56
after "in" , we use a number of time such as: 2 years, 3 years and it shows the future
"over" should go with a period.

"it" refers to the same thing at the previous phrase. "it" in D and E means "the suface temperature of the global" and so makes no sense.

this question tests a preposition, testing a purely grammaticaly point and so is typical of gmat sc, which normally test logic/meaning relation between entities.
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29 Jul 2014, 16:46
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08 Aug 2014, 03:45
daagh wrote:
I wouldn’t think B is wrong.
Let’s go case by case
(A) the surface temperature in Alaska, Siberia, and northwestern Canada has increased in the previous thirty years by about five degrees --- ‘Over the previous’ means that the thirty years do not include the present. Then we cannot justify the use of present perfect ‘has increased ’ wrong

Hi daagh,

There might be a mistake in your analysis. Choice A doesn't have "over the previous" that you mentioned, but "in the previous". The way I view the problems in choice A is different from yours. Please help to clarify if my understanding is incorrect/correct:

The use of "in" in this sentence is a bit confused. "in" can be understood as in "increase in" which means to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or intensity). Thus, temperature cannot increase in period of time but over period of time.

How do you think?
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