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# According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow

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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2019, 21:55
1
bdumpala wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 45
Page: 644

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come

(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come

(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come

(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming

https://www.nytimes.com/1989/08/25/business/stock-averages-reach-new-highs-dow-up-56-erases-87-mark.html

The gains reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a ''soft landing,'' followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

I suppose the easiest way to solve this is through POE:

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come Cant immediately spot any issues, lets keep it for now

(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come when we use rather, we cannot use the infitive (to +verb form), hence out

(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come same issue as mentioned by Daagh, instead will not take the infinitive form

(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come same issue as answer choice B

(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming with it instead coming? not parallel with "will avoid"

Hope this makes it easier to solve the question in lesser time.

@experts please correct me if my chain of thoughts seem wrong.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 16:27
1
aniket16c wrote:
Dear experts,
egmat mikemcgarry GMATNinja GMATNinjatwo AjiteshArun @empowergmat
Please help me clarify whether the reasons behind eliminating the different options are correct:

Option b. A connector behind "rather" is missing. "Rather" signifies preferrence over the other. However in this sentence the "soft lamding" is replacing the other effects of recession. Hence use of "rather is incorrect.

Option c. In one of the post, it is mentioned that "earlier in the year modifies recession", while it should modify "fear". Can you please clarify this statement and the reason to eliminate option C.

In addition to that, number of posts mention parallelism to eliminate all the incorrect options. I would like to understand what is wrong in the use of "to avoid" and "to come" in option B.

Appreciate your help!

Here's the full sentence, with choice (A) and choice (C) inserted:

Quote:
(A) According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

Quote:
(C) According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

Now let's look at a couple differences between (A) and (C):

(1) Confidence in vs confidence that

Here are stripped down versions of each:
(A) "The gains reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession ... and instead come in for a 'soft landing'..."
(C) "The gains reflect growing confidence in the economy's ability to avoid the recession... and instead to come in for a 'soft landing'...".

So we essentially have:
(A) "... confidence THAT the economy will (1) avoid the recession and (2) come in for a soft landing..."
(C) "... confidence in the economy's ability (1) to avoid the recession... and (2) to come in for a 'soft landing'...".

There's a difference in meaning here. With (A), there is confidence THAT something will happen. With (C), there is confidence in the economy's ABILITY to do X and Y. Which makes more sense: there are gains in the stock market because we feel confident in the economy's ABILITY to do something? Or there are gains in the stock market because we feel confident that X and Y will actually happen? I'd go with the latter.

Also, compare these two:

• "We are confident THAT the economy will come in for a soft landing, followed by a gradual increase in business activity"
• "We are confident in the economy's ability to come in for a soft landing, followed by a gradual increase in business activity"

The latter makes it sound as though the economy has the ABILITY to be followed by something. The former simply expresses that we are confident that something will take place after the soft landing. The latter makes more sense, so (A) looks better so far.

(2) "(A) ... the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year... " vs "(C) ... the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared."

In choice (A), there is no question that "that many had feared earlier in the year" modifies "recession". In (C), the modifier "something earlier in the year many had feared" is a bit more ambiguous: is the recession the thing that many had feared? Or is the economy's ability the thing that many had feared? Obviously the latter wouldn't make any sense. The construction in (A) is clearer, so that's another vote for (A).

Even though (C) doesn't have any definitive grammatical errors , when we stack it up against choice (A), (A) is clearer and more logical, and therefore our winner.

I hope that helps!
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2008, 04:48
1
2
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations

I dont' know why it used past perfect tense for A..There is even no single past tense in the sentence!!!
Not mentioning the past perfect tense, I think A is right.
IN B...I am not sure if we can still have "rather to come" without and connecting words such as "and". And maybe it would be better if "in avoiding" is used rather than "to avoid". Overall, B looks okay to me.
In C...confidence in economy's ability...sounds not quite right. Again, past perfect tense. So I drop C.
D. Past progressive tense makes me a bit uncomfortable, but I think D is better than B.
E...Awkward..."with it instead coming" and passive expression.

For me B and E are the winners. If OA is A, I do need an explanation on the reason of using Past Perfect tense there. THx.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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20 May 2011, 05:38
Please, your help with this:
a) According to the OE in the OG 12th: "The original sentence successfully avoids the problems that may occur in a long sentence with multiple modifiers. Two subordinate clauses begin with "that", and one of them is contained within another".
Could someone please explain: why does, in this case, the sentence successfully avoid this usual problem?, and Why, in other cases, other sentences can't?

b) How can one be sure that "come" is parallel with "avoid", and not with "reflect" of the main clause?,

c) In B, why does "rather to come" is wrong?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2013, 00:57
1
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

Choices B and D
"growing confidence in the economy to avoid the recession"
are unidomatic, and clearly wrong.

Choice E is not parallel, and the two clauses cannot be connected by "with"
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Choice A is parallel "will avoid (...) come", but my main reason to discard C and pick A is the word "something"
(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
What is "something"? the recession or the ability?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 12:09
Hi EGMAT,

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Here correct answer is A. But why we are using past perfect tense. here we are talking about three time periods :past (fear of recession), present (time when the sentence was spoken), and future (will avoid recession). Can't we show past by simple past instead of past perfect? I am unable to get this as there cannot be the case of if.. then.. condition.
Also why choice C is wrong? Is it due to parallelism issue?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2014, 09:53
egmat wrote:
karanthakurani wrote:
Hi EGMAT,

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Here correct answer is A. But why we are using past perfect tense. here we are talking about three time periods :past (fear of recession), present (time when the sentence was spoken), and future (will avoid recession). Can't we show past by simple past instead of past perfect? I am unable to get this as there cannot be the case of if.. then.. condition.
Also why choice C is wrong? Is it due to parallelism issue?

Hi karanthakurani,

Yes, the usage of past perfect tense is a bit tricky here. We need to understand the structure and the meaning of this sentence.

"According to some analysts" is equal to saying "Analysts said". This is just implied in the sentence. This is the past tense event for the analysts.

Also "earlier this year" makes it clear that the analysts "feared" before they stated their opinion. So the usage of past perfect tense is correct here.

In the presence of words that establish time sequencing, such "earlier in the year", use of past perfect tense is optional and not incorrect. You may or may not choose to use past perfect tense in the presence of such words.

This is the reason why Choice A is correct here.

In Choice C, placement of “earlier in the year” is not correct. It suggests that recession was earlier in the year and not many had feared it earlier in the year. Also, use of “instead to” is not idiomatic.

Hope this helps

Regards,
Krishna

Hi eGMAT,
I got the question but need a quick clarification on your explanation above...

Here, "earlier in the year" is a time indicator like "by the time". Right ? You've mentioned that use of past perfect tense is optional. But for a sentence like 'By the time the party ended, the chief guest had left.', use of past perfect tense is must NOT OPTIONAL.

So, please let me know why it'll be optional for this OG question ?

P.S: Optional use of past perfect tense, I guess, only works in a sentence where words such as 'after','before' etc are present,I think. Please correct me if I'm wrong.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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20 May 2014, 10:17
egmat wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:

Hi eGMAT,
I got the question but need a quick clarification on your explanation above...

Here, "earlier in the year" is a time indicator like "by the time". Right ? You've mentioned that use of past perfect tense is optional. But for a sentence like 'By the time the party ended, the chief guest had left.', use of past perfect tense is must NOT OPTIONAL.

So, please let me know why it'll be optional for this OG question ?

P.S: Optional use of past perfect tense, I guess, only works in a sentence where words such as 'after','before' etc are present,I think. Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Hi @bagdbmba,

Thanks for drawing our attention to this one.

When time markers are present to indicate the sequencing, the past perfect tense is usually optional. Whether it’s actually used or not depends on the context of the sentence.
I would say that it’s better to use the past perfect tense in the context of this sentence, if only because there are several actions in the sentence, both stated and implied.

1. Earlier: many had feared that the economy was heading into a recession.
2. There were gains in the stock market => Logically, this must have happened after the fears, since people wouldn’t have feared that there would be a recession if the stock market already had gains.
3. The analysts made their statement about what these gains reflect. => This is usually considered the ‘simple past’ part of this sentence. I believe, though, that either this part or the previous one (there were gains in the stock market) could be the ‘simple past’ action here.
4. The analysts’ prediction is that the economy will avoid the recession and instead come in for a ‘soft landing’.

I hope this helps.
Regards,
Meghna

Thanks Meghna for clarifying.
So in case of time marker/indicator such as "by the time", use of past perfect tense is MUST. 'By the time the party ended, the chief guest had left.' Right ? (Or is "by the time" NOT a time marker? )

Then for which time markers the use of past perfect tense is OPTIONAL, as you say ? Can we list 'em anyhow ?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2014, 23:36
TGC wrote:
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.

Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed.

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps!

Regards,
Deepak

Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for the good explanation. However, below is my query.

How can we be so sure of the phrase "According to some analysts" is a past event?

Unless the below are mentioned we cannot be sure enough?

(1). Currently, according to analysts : Present

(2). In the past, according to analyst: Past

(3). According to analyst in the coming years: Future

And lastly for the indefinite time when we don't know the time period we use "Present Perfect"

(4). According to analysts: Present perfect.

Please clarify !

Hi Saurabh,

It is not advisable to use the present perfect when the time period is not known. The present perfect tense is used when we need to show the duration over which an action has continued or when the effect of an event that happened in the past are still visible in the present.

Also, the time marker "earlier in the year" tells us that the recession was feared earlier in the year. So, what event could possibly have happened after this fear? The context of the sentence tells us that the claims of the analysis is the only thing that could have happened afterwards.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2014, 04:42
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve

Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2014, 15:54
tomlui2010 wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve

Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.

Your examples (which you can turn into a single sentence by connecting with 'because') follow the standard rules of past perfect - two actions in the past with one happening before the other.

You don't need to look at a different rule to justify the past perfect.

KW

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2015, 09:55
282552 wrote:
Can anybody please explain the difference in use of "confidence that" and "confidence in" .I thought confidence in is a correct idiom.Expert please help!!!

Either "confident that" and "confident in" can be correct. When it comes to GMAT -- oftentimes it's not black and white. One is not necessarily always right while the other is always wrong -- try to think in terms of grey/middle areas where both can be correct.

In this case, the question is not testing you on an idiom usage -- there are other problems in other parts of the sentence that you should be directing your attention (and not wasting time on this particular area).

Also, we recommend that you create a free account here and watch through our video explanations of OG questions: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc50
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19 Sep 2016, 15:11
My two cents guys.

I based the analysis on OG

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2017, 20:55
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence. On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2017, 12:38
RMD007 wrote:
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence.

Original sentence again:
Quote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

You're on the right track! The first "that" ("that the economy will avoid the recession...") is just telling us more about the "growing confidence." The second "that" ("that many had feared earlier in the year") is just describing "the recession." Both are fine.

And its perfectly fine to see multiple "thats" in a single sentence, too. A full rundown of the various uses of "that" can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 43686.html

Quote:
On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja

I'm not completely sure which part of this sentence has inspired your question, but in most cases, the GMAT would prefer "such as" instead of "like", since you're introducing an example of an expert (albeit a lazy one who has done a totally crappy job of keeping up with questions this summer!). Personally, I don't like the sound of "as it has many experts...", but I don't think that there's anything inherently wrong with it on the GMAT.

I hope this helps!
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10 Oct 2017, 07:28
[/quote]

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?[/quote]

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.[/quote]

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?
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11 Nov 2017, 22:00
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??
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27 Dec 2017, 14:59
longhaul123 wrote:
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??

Hello longhaul123,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is my response nonetheless.

You are correct in saying that the usage of the phrase earlier in the year prompts the usage of past perfect tense verb had feared.

If we put all the events in the chronological order, we will find that:

Event 1: Many had feared recession earlier in the year.
Event 2: Analysts said.
Event 3: the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence
Event 4: the economy will avoid the recession and come in for a 'soft landing'
Event 5: The business activity will gradually increase.

Since, between the two past events - Event 1 and Event 2, the action of had feared took place earlier, usage of past perfect tense is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2019, 06:07
Required structure...

The gains (..) reflect (..) that the economy will avoid (..) and (will) come (..)

Parallelism to be maintained between will avoid and will come.
That is required
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2019, 00:23
EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Could you please provide an explanation for this question?
Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow   [#permalink] 18 Apr 2019, 00:23

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# According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow

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