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# According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the

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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2014, 23:37
Scarlett166 wrote:
I go with E.

In this question, we compare "nearly eight million people" with the number of people enrolling the nations four-year colleges. So:
A. Compare "people" with "the enrollment" -> wrong
B. Wrong word for comparison: the equivalent of
C. Wrong comparison: "equal" is used for uncountable nouns.
D. Compare "people" with "the enrollment" -> wrong

After eliminating the incorrect answer, I also chose E. However, I am not satisfied with E since it's a bit weird.

Can you or anyone explain why "As many as are enrolled in" is correct?
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12 Dec 2014, 12:24
1
I picked B.

I had to do a lot of digging around different forums but I believe this explanation gives the best reason as to why E is correct and dayum, it seems so simple. So the problem below tests our ability to compare like items.

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nations four-year colleges and universities.j

We are currently being tested on our ability to compare the underlined portion of the sentence with the eight million people. Translation: the answer choice should reflect a number.

A. equivalent to the enrollment of
Incorrect: Answer choice A compares the eight million people to the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities. Remember the answer choice should compare the eight million people to the number of people enrolled in the nation's four-year colleges and universities.

B. the equivalent of those enrolled in
Incorrect: I'm so bummed I picked this one but here's why B is wrong. Those refers to the people enrolled in the four-year colleges. This causes a comparison error because it causes us to compare the eight-million people to just the people enrolled in the nation's four-year colleges.

C. equal to those who are enrolled in
Incorrect: for the same reason as B, answer choice C is wrong.

D. as many as the enrollment of
Incorrect: for the same reason answer choice A is incorrect, D is incorrect. It compares the eight-million people to the enrollment of the school.

E. as many as are enrolled in
Correct: that leaves just E. As many as are enrolled properly refers to the number of people enrolled in the nation's four year colleges.
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13 Dec 2014, 10:03
I also picked "B". I didn't quite understand some of the other posts about why B was wrong or why E was so much better. (What's parallelism? What's elliptical?) But having pondered the question, I have decided B is wrong because of the meaning, or implied meaning, of "equivalent." If you look it up, it means equal in force, or equal in significance, or identical in effect, or equal in might, or having the same solution set. All of these definitions imply that although there is a commonality, there is also a difference.

If I was dividing candy among two children, and both piles had 5 bars of Almond Joy and nothing else, I wouldn't use the word equivalent. I would say both piles are the same. If both piles had a mix of 5 candy bars each, I wouldn't say the piles are the same, but I might say they are equivalent. Let's take this comparison to another level: in our scenario of two piles of 5 different candy bars each, I might not say the piles are the same, but I might say they have the same number. I would not say they have "equivalent numbers", as this implies there is some difference.
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14 Dec 2014, 20:50
Sentence Correction is largely a test of logic. A basic characteristic of logic is that one can only have an apples to apples comparison.

With B, the sentence would be:

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about the equivalent of those enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.

Focusing on the underlined portion and slightly expanding it, the sentence becomes:

Eight million people are equivalent of those (people) enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.

But this is an illogical comparison, Eight million people (a number) cannot be equivalent of people (enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities).

At the very least, the sentence should have been (not that this is perfect):

..eight million people, about equivalent to the number of people enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2015, 14:11
1
3
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of "Equivalent" is an adjective, modifying the amount (which is another red flag). The "number" must not be omitted. None of them follow so it's grammatically incorrect.
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in "equivalent of" is wrong because the idiomatic phrase is "equivalent to".
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in "Equal" is also a modifier, so it must have amount/value/size. Without it, the phrase is not grammatical.
(D) as many as the enrollment of This violates the rules of comparison construction, where enrollment, being a process, cannot be compared to number of people.
(E) as many as are enrolled in Best choice. "As many as" is typically preferred for comparisons of equivalence. We know this because most of us write with "as many as". None of us use with "equivalent" or "equal" left alone. I suppose knowing which are countable and uncountable modifiers would help in how to eliminate the answer choices and what "equal" and "equivalent" generally refer to. We say "equal" and "equivalent" in English because what we are comparing in generally unquantifiable.
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18 Jan 2015, 05:04
yesiwill wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

I do not like this question which is from old og books. and I recomment you do not study this question.

in choice E.

the paralel structure permit us to cut off the same part in the second part of comparison. if there is no parallel structure, we can not cut of any part. there is no "a form of to be+ enroled" in the first part of the comparison. we can not infer the cut off part . we can not in fer that "people are enrolled" .
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2015, 19:45
1
I think the issue here is that the last sentence: "about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities" modifies the word "people."

A) says the people are equivalent to enrollment - "People" can't be equal to "enrollment"
B) and C) tries to say that the people are "equal" or "equivalent" to those enrolled in colleges - This could mean they are equal in abilities/skills etc. The sentence is trying to make a statement about the number of people though, so these two sentences aren't the best way to show that.
D) says eight million people are as many as "the enrollment of" Again, like A), "People" can't be as many as the "enrollment"

The best way to give more information on the "eight million people" is to say it as E) --> "as many as are enrolled in." It isn't missing a subject - the word "many" can function as a pronoun relating back to the noun "people."
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11 Mar 2015, 07:38
this is old question in og10 and should not be studied

people is countable so we have to use idiomatic use "as many as" as in D and E

enrolment is not countable so D is wrong

E has problem. the comparision need a parallel sides the second part contain a form of " to be" which is parallel to nothing in the first half of comparison. this situation is wrong in many other sc problems.
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11 Mar 2015, 07:45
1
What is the subject of "are enrolled in". Isn't it a run-on sentence?
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19 Jun 2015, 12:03
The 2015 Official GMAT Guide for Verbal Review claims that the word equal is usually used to describe uncountable values (Sentence Correction Q. #85).

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

Their explanation to the incorrect answer (C) reads, "Equal is generally used for uncountable quantities, such as equal justice, not countable quantities, such as people."

But, isn't "equal" used all the time for discrete values, for example, math and the other GMAT section known as Quantitative? Sure, it's represented with two different formats, spelled out in grammar vs. mathematical notation in symbol form, but the function is the same, no?

Can you not say, "The number of oranges and the number of apples are equal in quantity." Or even with continuous values like, "The water level is equal in all tanks." Granted, the GMAT explanation states that it's usually for uncountable quantities. I just think that it's a bad answer choice to have if that's the reason behind (C) being incorrect.

Is it grammatically incorrect to state, "Five million people in country A is equal to the population who are in country B"? In that case, one would be making equal "Five million people" to "population". So, the people themselves aren't equal to the population, it's the number of people that's equal to the population which needs to be clearly distinguished (?). Is that the reason?
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2015, 14:44
1
I think that OG explanation is misleading, so I wouldn't focus on it too much. The word 'equal' is used in different ways, and I think they're thinking only about one of the definitions.

We often use 'equal' in what you might call its 'mathematical meaning' when comparing two numbers, or two amounts, so we say "the number of people in the auditorium is equal to the number in the foyer", or "the amount of milk in the pitcher is equal to the amount on the floor". When using 'equal' in that way, you need to be sure you're comparing like with like - an amount with an amount, or a number with a number. That usage is the one the OG explanation seems to be ignoring.

But 'equal' is often used in a more metaphorical sense to mean something like 'roughly the same', even in cases where we aren't discussing things that can be measured numerically. So we say "the two tasks are of equal difficulty", or "the employees received equal treatment", or "all things being equal". I have to guess that's the usage the person writing the OG solution had in mind.

It is not the usage of 'equal' in C that makes C incorrect. It's that the sentence doesn't draw a proper comparison. When it uses 'those', it is referring to the people enrolled in four-year colleges. So answer C is saying the people receiving training are equal to the people in college. That's not what the question means to say - the sentence isn't saying the people in both groups are roughly the same. it means to say that the number of people in college is equal to the number in training. It would be possible to use the word 'equal' in a correct answer here, but it would need to be clear that one number was being compared with another.

And as for your three example sentences:

"The number of oranges and the number of apples are equal in quantity." --> this is fine except that the 'in quantity' at the end is redundant (the rest of the sentence makes clear you're comparing quantities), so would best be cut

"The water level is equal in all tanks." --> that seems good to me

"Five million people in country A is equal to the population who are in country B"? --> this is not drawing a correct comparison. You could say the population of one country was equal to the population of the other, or something like "There are 5m people in country A, and an equal number in country B".
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19 Jun 2015, 18:48
Thanks for confirming my thoughts! I'm on the right track

Some of the explanations in OG are complicated lol.
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17 Mar 2016, 04:59
1
mejia401 wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of "Equivalent" is an adjective, modifying the amount (which is another red flag). The "number" must not be omitted. None of them follow so it's grammatically incorrect.
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in "equivalent of" is wrong because the idiomatic phrase is "equivalent to".
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in "Equal" is also a modifier, so it must have amount/value/size. Without it, the phrase is not grammatical.
(D) as many as the enrollment of This violates the rules of comparison construction, where enrollment, being a process, cannot be compared to number of people.
(E) as many as are enrolled in Best choice. "As many as" is typically preferred for comparisons of equivalence. We know this because most of us write with "as many as". None of us use with "equivalent" or "equal" left alone. I suppose knowing which are countable and uncountable modifiers would help in how to eliminate the answer choices and what "equal" and "equivalent" generally refer to. We say "equal" and "equivalent" in English because what we are comparing in generally unquantifiable.

Enrollment could also stand for the "number of people enrolled"
This is a meaning on the dictionary
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2016, 23:49
yesiwill wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Comparision here is between the 8m people and to those that are enrolled in colleges & univ.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
Read it : "8m people, about equivalent to the enrollment". Wrong. people are not equivalent to enrollment.

(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
8m people, about the equivalent of - again people compared with enrolment

(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
8m people, about equal to those (here equalto those gives falls comparison. we need to compare the number i.e. 8m people with the number of people enrolled). wrong comparison again.

(D) as many as the enrollment of
8m people, about as many as the enrollment of (prefer enrol over enrolment). (VAN rule)

(E) as many as are enrolled in

8m people, about as many as are enrolled in colleges and univ. Here 8m is compared because 'many' is used. 8m people is correctly compared with as many as are enrolled. Also as many as is idiomatic.
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2016, 06:01
According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of --wrong modifier equivalent

(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in--wrong modifier equivalent

(C) equal to those who are enrolled in--wrong modifier equal

(D) as many as the enrollment of--- here eight million is modified with no. of enrollment ,which is wrong ,it should be people

(E) as many as are enrolled in --here as many as is correct , also eight million people is compared with as many as are enrolled ,i.e. people are enrolled , perfectly okay

Modifier as many as is used for the people and the modifier equivalent is used for the amount
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07 Nov 2016, 21:12
Can someone explain me the difference between option C & E???
Is there any change in meaning in option C??
Though E seems more suitable for this question.

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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2016, 13:03
1
sandeepb17 wrote:
Can someone explain me the difference between option C & E???
Is there any change in meaning in option C??
Though E seems more suitable for this question.

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Equal is used only for absolute numeric terms such as 1 plus 2 is 3

Usage " as many as " is correctly comparing the extent ( But not severely specific about the number )

.........job training and general education for eight million people, as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Hope this helps...

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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2017, 14:23
rahulkashyap wrote:
mejia401 wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of "Equivalent" is an adjective, modifying the amount (which is another red flag). The "number" must not be omitted. None of them follow so it's grammatically incorrect.
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in "equivalent of" is wrong because the idiomatic phrase is "equivalent to".
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in "Equal" is also a modifier, so it must have amount/value/size. Without it, the phrase is not grammatical.
(D) as many as the enrollment of This violates the rules of comparison construction, where enrollment, being a process, cannot be compared to number of people.
(E) as many as are enrolled in Best choice. "As many as" is typically preferred for comparisons of equivalence. We know this because most of us write with "as many as". None of us use with "equivalent" or "equal" left alone. I suppose knowing which are countable and uncountable modifiers would help in how to eliminate the answer choices and what "equal" and "equivalent" generally refer to. We say "equal" and "equivalent" in English because what we are comparing in generally unquantifiable.

Enrollment could also stand for the "number of people enrolled"
This is a meaning on the dictionary

I agree with @rahulkashya.
According to Oxford dictionary, "enrollment" is the act of officially joining a course, school, etc.; the number of people who do this.
If so, enrollment is comparable to eight million people.
Is this right?
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Re: According to the a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2017, 20:54
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of - Illogical comparison - eight million people and enrollment of colleges ; idiom error - equivalent to
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in - idiom error - equivalent to
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in - idiom error - the people are not equal but their numbers are
(D) as many as the enrollment of - illogical comparison - eight million people and enrollment
(E) as many as are enrolled in - Correct

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