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# Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups

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Manager
Joined: 15 Jun 2007
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03 Aug 2007, 08:11
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Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

79% (01:44) correct 21% (01:59) wrong based on 961 sessions

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Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female's sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup.

Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above?

(A) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups.
(B) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them.
(C) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth.
(D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.
(E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup.
Manager
Joined: 15 Jun 2007
Posts: 82
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2007, 12:39
why does the odor INHIBITS the interest? this passage reads: it is the odor that STIMULATES the interest...
SVP
Joined: 29 Mar 2007
Posts: 2433
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2007, 21:41
stevegt wrote:
Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female's sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup.

Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above?

(A) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups.
(B) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them.
(C) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth.
(D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.
(E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup.

E.

We need something to connect the two statements above. This connection preferably needs to be explained by an odor given off by the pups. This odor or scent has something to do with why the females do not show maternal behavior for at least seven days.
Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 782
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2007, 02:02
stevegt wrote:
why does the odor INHIBITS the interest? this passage reads: it is the odor that STIMULATES the interest...

The author never says that odor stimulates the interest...may be the interest was developed by something else(cute rats may be)...but this interest is affected by the odor in an adverse manner.
Senior Manager
Joined: 14 Jun 2007
Posts: 393
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2007, 12:00
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stevegt wrote:
why does the odor INHIBITS the interest? this passage reads: it is the odor that STIMULATES the interest...

you are mentally filling in the wrong gaps for this question without realizing it. The test takers employ psychologists and all sorts of PhD's just for this reason. nowhere did it say odor stimulates interest.

yes, common sense and experience tells us the odor stimulates interest if the rat pup is the actual offspring of the mommy rat. your brain filled in this gap for you, which is why you got it wrong. The question was designed just for this purpose.

the stimulus tells us that odor inhibits maternal instincts if it isn't the rats actual child. over time, a rat will take care offspring that isn't hers. take the odor or the ability to smell away, and it will do it quicker. which is why E is the answer.
Intern
Joined: 21 Jul 2012
Posts: 8
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2012, 08:24
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This question took me a lot of time for review. So I provide my reasoning here for someone who stuck with brain.

Premise: female rates encountered pups --> trigger maternal behaviors after 7 days
Condition: disable sense or removing glands --> period of triggering will be shortened (less than 7 days)

(E) provide us this connection: removed odor --> trigger maternal interest
Senior Manager
Joined: 17 Sep 2016
Posts: 255
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 19:02
does anyone think that "the period" stands for "seven days", like me ?

when I read this question, I am totally mess because I cannot understand the logic of the prompt , if shorten "seven days", then damage the link between smell and odor.

while E states that no odor, no maternal behavior.

what a poor verbal
Intern
Joined: 16 Mar 2016
Posts: 2
Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 09:08
i cant be able to figure out between d and e
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Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2017, 06:49
2
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nikhil890 wrote:
i cant be able to figure out between d and e

We need something that explains why the amount of time it takes for adult female rats to start showing maternal behaviors "can be considerably shortened by disabling the female's sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup." So we need to compare adult females who CAN pick up the scent of the pups to adult females who CANNOT pick up the scent of the pups.

Quote:
(D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.

We are not trying to explain a difference between female rats who have given birth and female rats who have never given birth. Instead, we are trying to compare adult females who CAN pick up on the scent of the pups to adult females who CANNOT pickup on the scent of the pups. Choice (D) does not explain why the group who cannot pick up the scent shows maternal behaviors in a shorter amount of time. Thus, (D) should be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup.

Ah ha... normally, an adult female rat will start showing maternal interest in a pup that she did not bear after about a week. If this maternal interest is normally inhibited by the odor of the pup, we can infer that the time would be shortened if the female could NOT smell the odor of the pup.

For example, if the female's sense of smell has been disabled or if the scent-producing glands of the pup have been removed, the adult female will not be able to smell the pup. This would remove a factor that, according to choice (E), normally inhibits maternal interest. As a result, those maternal interests would be developed in LESS time than usual.

Choice (E) explains the difference described in the passage and is the best answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2017, 13:54
Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female's sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup.

Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above?

(A) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups.
(B) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them.
(C) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth.
(D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.

(E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup.

The maternal behaviour can be started before seven days by removing the scent glands or removin the scent reception glands in the female rats clrealy suggets that the scent inhibits the female rats maternal behaviour and thus option E is correct.
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Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2017, 19:09
Hi everyone. I understand how E connects both statements from the passage, and how other answer choices are unsatisfactory.

However, can someone help me understand why I should not be bothered by the following:

If, according to E, the development of a female rat's maternal interest is inhibited by the odor, then how does one explain that after being confined with a pup for about seven days it starts showing maternal behavior?
My feeling is that in science, and in English in general, the meaning of the verb "to inhibit" is quite strict. So unless the rat's sense of smell is disable / the scent-producing glands of the pup are removed, there should be no development of maternal interest whatsoever.

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Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2017, 08:59
1
Hi everyone. I understand how E connects both statements from the passage, and how other answer choices are unsatisfactory.

However, can someone help me understand why I should not be bothered by the following:

If, according to E, the development of a female rat's maternal interest is inhibited by the odor, then how does one explain that after being confined with a pup for about seven days it starts showing maternal behavior?
My feeling is that in science, and in English in general, the meaning of the verb "to inhibit" is quite strict. So unless the rat's sense of smell is disable / the scent-producing glands of the pup are removed, there should be no development of maternal interest whatsoever.

"Inhibit" can mean to hinder an action or process. For example: "Refrigeration helps to inhibit the growth of bacteria in food." That doesn't mean that refrigeration completely stops the growth of bacteria, but it slows down the process.

Similarly, the odor doesn't STOP the female from developing maternal interest, but it does slow the process (i.e. seven days instead of less than seven days).
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Re: Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups &nbs [#permalink] 18 Nov 2017, 08:59
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