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# Advanced SC: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 08:51
Can someone explain the difference between C and E. They are the clear contenders in this question

The greatest road system built in the Americas ( modifies) .... the Incan highway
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 09:02
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E. They are the clear contenders in this question

The greatest road system built in the Americas ( modifies) .... the Incan highway

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended==> THIS OPTION DONT HAVE A VERB FOR THE SUBJECT..INCAN HIGH
HIGHLITED PART IS ACTING AS A MODIFIER...HENCE THIS ONE IS A FRAGMENT.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending==>THIS ONE HAS CLEARLY HAVE A SUB-VERB PAIR.
MOREOVER EXTENDING IS MODIFYING THE INCAN HIGHWAY..

HOPE IT HELPS
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 10:39
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E.

With C, the sentence would be:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

The issue is the presence of and above. If this "and" was replaced by a comma, it would have been a much better sentence:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length, extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

Now let's look at the problem that "and" introduces, from a parallelism perspective. As you would appreciate, "and" joins two or more entities. So, since C uses and extended there must be another entity to the left of "and" that this "and" joins/is parallel with. The most logical thought would be that this "and" connects the two verbs: was and extended. In other words, the sentence is intended to be as follows:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and which extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

In other words, the parallelism is between: which X (was over 2,500 miles in length) and which Y (extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili)

The issue however is that there is no main "verb" in this sentence; in other words, there is no Independent clause. All complete sentence [u]must
have at least one Independent clause.

Think about C in this way:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast.

- Is this a complete sentence? Clearly no. A correct sentence would have been:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast, met with an accident.

- Now this is a complete sentence because it has a "main verb": met. This sentence now has an Independent clause: fozzy's car met with an accident.

Similarly:

the Incan highway, which was over 2500 miles in length and extended from...

- Is this a complete sentence? Again no, because it does not have a main verb.

While most of this is more detail than you would care to know, but a holistic understanding helps in tacking SC better.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 15:01
noboru wrote:
OA is E.
Could anybody clarify why extending is better than extended? I always have problems with the participles...

If E is correct then the 1st statement reads as below

"The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus"...This is a dependent clause. To make it independent it has to be "The greatest road system [IS] built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus.

Otherwise E is wrong. Can someone please explain if my reasoning is incorrect?
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 15:17
noboru wrote:
OA is E.
Could anybody clarify why extending is better than extended? I always have problems with the participles...

If E is correct then the 1st statement reads as below

"The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus"...This is a dependent clause. To make it independent it has to be "The greatest road system [IS] built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus.

Otherwise E is wrong. Can someone please explain if my reasoning is incorrect?

hi

"The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus"===>this is not a clause...a clause must have a subject and a verb

here if you are thinking that BUILT is a verb ==>then you are thinking wrong....built is not acting as a VERB.

SO THE WHOLE THING IS A MODIFIER.
AND IS MODIFYING INCAN HIGHWAY.

HOPE ITS CLEAR
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2014, 16:51
abhi47 wrote:
E is the correct answer as it is most precise one. The ans choices with "Which ' and "Extended" are incorrect.

Hi Verita,
Could you please explain why c is incorrect.
it uses length and extended correctly.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2014, 12:41
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In A, the which-clause (which...Chile) lacks a verb.
Eliminate A.

In C, the Incan highway (subject) lacks a verb.
Eliminate C.

With regard to B and D: extended and extending convey different meanings.
Case 1: a highway extended implies that SOMEONE STRETCHED the highway beyond its initial length.
Case 2: a highway extending implies that the HIGHWAY ITSELF was long enough to STRETCH across the indicated distance.
The intended meaning here is Case 2.
Eliminate B and D.

Analysis of the OA:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.
Here, the subject of the sentence is the Incan highway.
The greatest road system is as an APPOSITIVE serving to DEFINE the Incan highway.
The COMMA + VERBing modifier (extending from Northern Ecuador through Peru) serves an as adverb modifying the preceding clause, providing context for HOW the Incan highway WAS over 2,500 miles long.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 08:45
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

- Lets analyze the question- subject are highlighted in Bold and verb in italic font

Clause 1 : The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus wasthe Incan highway
Clause 2: which, over 2,500 miles long and
extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

So 2nd clause do not have any verb.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended - "Comma + and" starts a new clause, which do not have any subject.

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended - Clause 1 do not contain the verb and extended is a modifier, which is not parallel to was over

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended - Shift the main focus of scentence and use of being is incorrect here.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending - extending is modifying the Greatest road system and correctly expressing intent of the sentence. This is correct answer
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01 May 2015, 03:22
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
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Last edited by hazelnut on 20 Aug 2017, 16:54, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the title of the question

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01 May 2015, 13:32
souvik101990 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
the subordinate clause starting with which does not have a verb

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
poor construction. over 2.5k miles - needs a verb

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
this is a fragment - no main verb.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
being is correctly used in 2 cases: when it serves as a noun, or when it is used with passive voice structure.
neither applies here.
comma+being -> should modify the preceded clause, but there is no clause.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
correct
comma+ing verb modifies the preceded clause by giving additional information.

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01 May 2015, 13:46
Tough one, between B and E.. I will go with E. The comma before extended is not necessary in B !!

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01 May 2015, 23:45
Option B is wrong because it changes the meaning...
I think grammatically there is no fault. 'The greatest road system extended from X to Y' seems perfectly fine.
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2015, 17:31
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2015, 20:16
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

A and C are not a sentence so they are out.

in D.
"being over" means that " the highway was extended while it is 2500 miles. this is not logic

now look at B.
B is correct but B is inferior than E because the meaning relation between two ideas, extending and over 2500 mile are closer than meaning relation in choice B

this case is tested many times on og. the similar questions are "greatest lake , covering " in og books.

when we face two choices both correct, choose the choice which have closer meaning relation.
this case is hard.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2015, 21:53
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher
Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from
northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and
extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

In this question B is wrong because we should use modifier instead of and. That is the reason E is correct.

Please specify where to use modifier and where to use and?

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher
Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from
northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and
extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2015, 21:12
Structurally B is completely wrong. "The Incan Highway" should be placed between two commas as it has been appropriately done in E. Moreover, "long" and "extend" do not belong to the same list of items. Hence, "and" is not needed here at all.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2015, 10:18
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A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending --- which referring the object ‘the highway’ starts a subordinate clause having no verb; a fragment.
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended --- bad parallelism on the connector ‘and’ in which one side is a just a phrase and the other side is a clause
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended --- a fragment; no verb for the road system.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended – meaning awfully changed as if it was extended because it was 2500 miles long.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending--- Correct structure.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 23:54
I believe the error with AC B is that the modifier describing the highway should be a relative pronoun to describe how long it was... i.e 'which was over 2500 miles long...' instead of 'over 2500 miles long'.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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07 May 2016, 21:15
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

the meaning in b is not close. two ideas, "was highway" and "extended' are independent.
in short, b has not close meaning relation.

no grammar problem in b. focus on meaning analysis. meaning relation between two ideas in b is not close. choice b is typicle of gmat question.

in contrast, meaning relation between two ideas are close.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2017, 06:55
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button – closing this request.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of   [#permalink] 05 Jan 2017, 06:55

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