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# Advanced SC: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2017, 19:45
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Ans E

In E

Main clause: "...the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long..."

Subject of the sentence: "the Incan Highway..." is sandwiched between two participial phrase/modifier, both modifying the subject.

Modifier 1: "The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus..": Built is past participle of build

Modifier 2: " extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili..": Extending is present participle of extend

Side Note
Two subsequent modifiers - placed one after another - cannot modify the same subject/main clause, as seen in answer choices A to D. Of course there are plenty other wrong with all 4 of them.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2017, 03:42
TheRzS wrote:
Ans E

In E

Main clause: "...the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long..."

Subject of the sentence: "the Incan Highway..." is sandwiched between two participial phrase/modifier, both modifying the subject.

Modifier 1: "The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus..": Built is past participle of build

Modifier 2: " extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili..": Extending is present participle of extend

Side Note
Two subsequent modifiers - placed one after another - cannot modify the same subject/main clause, as seen in answer choices A to D. Of course there are plenty other wrong with all 4 of them.

Just a word of caution:
Do not eliminate an answer choice just by seeing two consecutive modifiers (without conjunction) referring to the same noun. Please check whether the case could be a valid exception (of touch rule), in which the second modifier modifies the the noun and first modifier ( the mission critical modifier) together. The following example is from Manhattan SC guide:
He had a way OF DODGING OPPONENTS that impressed the scouts.

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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2017, 00:39
As per the intent of sentence,
-The greatest road system....was the Incan highway
-Info about length and route of highway.

I am confused why option E is correct. Shouldn't there be a verb after Columbus and Incan highway?.
I feel option E suggest that the greatest road system was over 250 miles long....
However it now has eliminated the first intent of stressing the name of Highway. Also if the first clause modifies Incan highway, then Incan Highway must be within comma.

Also I am not sure why Option B is wrong?

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23 Apr 2017, 03:17
shoumodip wrote:
As per the intent of sentence,
-The greatest road system....was the Incan highway
-Info about length and route of highway.

I am confused why option E is correct. Shouldn't there be a verb after Columbus and Incan highway?.
I feel option E suggest that the greatest road system was over 250 miles long....
However it now has eliminated the first intent of stressing the name of Highway. Also if the first clause modifies Incan highway, then Incan Highway must be within comma.

Also I am not sure why Option B is wrong?

E: The subject is "the Incan Highway"; the verb is "was". Therefore there is no comma between them. The opening part "The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus" is a modifier for "the Incan Highway", not the subject itself.

B: " Incan highway" has 2 parallel modifiers:
1. over 2,500 miles in length
2. extended from....
The second modifier is wrong - it implies that the highway had existed, but it was subsequently extended by someone. This meaning is the not the original intended meaning.

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03 Sep 2017, 23:28
I picked option E but have a query on option B.
Option B as mentioned contains bad parallelism,
Omitting over 2,500 miles in length as a non-essesntial modifier, sentence B stands as The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.

So, is extended here a modifier or a verb. On side of the sentence before and we have a clause, so the other side should also contain a clause to maintain parallelism.

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04 Sep 2017, 00:15
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Sorry since the question and the choices are not there handily in front, I am finding it difficult to comment.
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04 Sep 2017, 00:18
daagh wrote:
Sorry since the question and the choices are not there handily in front, I am finding it difficult to comment.

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extendin

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04 Sep 2017, 01:44
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Please, note that the phenomenon of extension from Ecuador through Chile is a modifier that describes the enormous length of the road. In B, the second part is a fragment because it does not have a subject. Even so, because the extension through three countries is a describer or modifier of the system running for 2500 miles long, the second part should have been placed with just a comma rather than with a conjunction.
All in all, the important point is that B is incorrect and time to rollover to the remaining choices.
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04 Sep 2017, 02:27
daagh wrote:
Please, note that the phenomenon of extension from Ecuador through Chile is a modifier that describes the enormous length of the road. In B, the second part is a fragment because it does not have a subject. Even so, because the extension through three countries is a describer or modifier of the system running for 2500 miles long, the second part should have been placed with just a comma rather than with a conjunction.
All in all, the important point is that B is incorrect and time to rollover to the remaining choices.

Hi Daagh,
,over 2,500 miles in length, modifies the subject Incan highway and it's an non-essential modifier.
So, omitting ,over 2,500 miles in length,
Option B stands as- The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.
So, and here is not required or should have a subject to follow. Please help me in understanding if I am correct.

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04 Sep 2017, 03:11
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B without'and'
Quote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles long extended

Without the conjunction 'and', the sentence will be a double verbed clause with the Incan highway as the subject and two verbs namely ' was'and 'extended' without a proper connector. Obviously, this is wrong, some kind of a fragment, without a subject for the second part.
It is also not clear whether somebody extended the highway after some time or whether the highway ran the whole distance from day one without additional laying.
The most obvious and easily visible error seems to the parallelism error with a clause on one side of the conjunction and just a predicate on the other
I didn't go further on B because that much was enough for me to understand that wasn't among the contenders.
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05 Sep 2017, 03:56
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

how to eliminate choice B.
this problem show the meaing problem gmat want to test. just changing a little bit, meaing is different and not logic. this is the case we will meet on gmat.

look at b
the greatest road system is incan highway and extended from a to b.
relations among ideas is not close.
relation among ideas is more close in choice E.

this case is most difficult situation in meaning error. IDEA RELATION IS NOT CLOSE.

normally, we have the following kinds of meaning errors.
- meaning relation is not logic
-meaning relation is not clear
-meaning relation is redundant
-meaning relation is not close.

because gmat test meaning error, classifying meaning error is reasonable.

I try to remember 4 types of meaning error.

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05 Sep 2017, 09:54
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

We need a verb to make the original sentence correct.
We also have characteristic of the Incan highway 2500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.
We need present participle to depict the state of highway .

A use of extending is wrong in A as it should modify the highway but here it is connected to the phrase" over 2,500 miles long" also we need verb after which
B Changes meaning it suggests that the highway was over 2500 miles means greater than 2500 miles , but it was 2500 miles long
Parallelism error
C this choice is not parallel and use of extended is wrong it should modify highway.
D Wrong use of being also there is a shift in meaning it was not extended how can you extend the highway .
E Correct modifier extending correctly modifies the previous clause .
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05 Sep 2017, 10:27
This sentence also tests the concept of open marker and where the entities in parallelism are not easily seen .
So we have to repeat the same signal word to remove the ambiguity
For example
I want to go to Spain where i can participate in tomatina festival and throw tomatoes this sentence is wrong
The correct sentence is I want to go to Spain where i can participate in tomatina festival andwhere i can throw tomatoes
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09 Sep 2017, 17:02
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
- "and extending" = incorrect. ", which" not necessary b/c you're not giving it a verb.

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
- "and extended" = incorrect. "over 2,500 miles in length" = incomplete - where is verb? also, "in length" should be "long"

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
- "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction. "and extended" = incorrect.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
- "being" = incorrect. also, "was extended" = incorrect. the road system was not extended. "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
- correct as is

key thing to note here is the STRUCTURE of the sentence: OPENING MODIFIER --> MAIN POINT --> MODIFIER
> if you can spot this, notice the last phrase is a modifier, so it's logical to begin that with "verb-ing" and not "AND + SOMETHING".

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Re: Advanced SC: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to   [#permalink] 09 Sep 2017, 17:02

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