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Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their

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Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. So when you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, Novex is the one to choose.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument?


(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.

(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.

(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.

(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription.

(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex.

Originally posted by achan on 12 May 2010, 07:25.
Last edited by Bunuel on 20 Sep 2018, 01:49, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2018, 19:44
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monidip1010 wrote:
How is B incorrect? It states that hospitals are forced to prescribe Novex. It could be that the the drugs which are unbearable could be more effective than Novex. Pls correct me if I am wrong.

Quote:
Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. So when you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, Novex is the one to choose.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument?

(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.
(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription.
(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex.

Quote:
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.

All we know from (B) is that the hospitals that do NOT usually use Novex will use Novex occasionally. Sure, it is possible that the drug normally used by those hospitals is more effective, but we don't know that. Consider the following scenario:

  • The hospitals referred to in choice (B)--those that do not usually use Novex--normally use Drug X, which is slightly less effective than Novex but MUCH cheaper.
  • Sometimes, their patients cannot tolerate Drug X, so these hospitals must use Novex.
  • Novex is still the most effective option, so choice (B) does not necessarily undermine the advertisement's argument.

In other words, maybe Novex IS the most effective painkiller and these hospitals normally use another, cheaper option. In order for (B) to weaken the argument, you have to assume that there is another, more effective option. But (B) does not suggest that such an option exists. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.

Just because three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex, does that mean that Novex is the most EFFECTIVE painkiller? Maybe there is another painkiller that is a bit more effective, but since Novex is much cheaper, the hospitals go with the cheaper option.

Choice (C) fits with this scenario. Drug manufacturers encourage hospitals to buy Novex by selling it at very low prices. Sure, this doesn't PROVE that a more effective option exists, but it certainly suggests that the hospitals might purchase Novex because it is cheap, not necessarily because it is the most effective option.

In other words, (C) provides an alternate explanation for the data cited in the ad and, thus, seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument. (C) is the best answer.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Dec 2014, 05:04
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Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. So when you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, Novex is the one to choose.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the advertisement's argument?

(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.

(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.

(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.

(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor's prescription.

(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex

I got stuck between option B & C. C was about general products that the manufactures sell to the hospitals, while B was more specific to Novex. So, I chose B after taking approx 3 mins, only to find out that the OA is C.

Now, the only thing that can prove me wrong here is that option B says "many hospitals .... WILL DO SO
and not DO SO (without will), which might imply that the options is referring to any time in the future and not now.
Then this option might not work.
Please suggest..

Originally posted by talismaaniac on 09 May 2012, 14:07.
Last edited by souvik101990 on 29 Dec 2014, 05:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2010, 07:32
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IMO C.

The reason that Novex is so popular has to do with something other than its effectiveness? I immediately thought low cost and low and behold, it was one of the answers.

A --out of scope
B --tells us nothing about its effectiveness...tolerance is out of scope
C --Weakens argument
D --so what
E --this supports not undermines the argument
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2011, 18:50
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(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain. => out of scope
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use. => Strengthen the effective of Novex
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford. => Make Navex available in the almost all of hospital, weaken the reasoning of Navex's effective
(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. => in pharmacies, not in hospital, out of scope
(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex. => In some related field, this choice strengthen.

Correct answer is C
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2013, 09:19
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For weaken questions I follow the strategy that first i identify the conclusion and then look for ways on what are the other ways in which the conclusion can hold ( without the given premise)

In this question Conclusion - Novex should be used in as the most effective painkiller in Sinus
Premise - 3/4 hospitals use Novex for sinus pain.

If we can somehow think of other ways as to why Novex is used ( without thinking of the hospitals answer , we hit the nail there)

(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.
- Talks about other kinds of pain , irrelevant in the conclusions context.
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.
- This answer choice tells us that hospitals will use Novex for patients who cannot tolerate the drug that the hospitals usually give.
Again does not help our conclusion.
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.
- This answer choice states that because of ulterior motives of hospitals ( that they have the drug at very low cost) , the drug Novex is used by hospitals and not because its very effective. Bingo
(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor's prescription.
- Irrelevant in the context of the conclusion , talks about getting the medicine from pharmacy.
(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex.
- Again irrelevant in context of the conclusion.

Hope this helps
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2012, 00:20
To your question first - the context of the usage of WILL DO SO here implies that the hospitals are already doing this and will continue to do so.

For the correct answer, consider the fact that even if the hospitals prescribe the painkiller because other painkillers cannot be tolerated, this does not call into question the effectiveness of Novex as a drug. Choice C, which provides an alternative explanation to effectiveness as to why the drug may be prescribed, is therefore the right choice.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2013, 20:50
Quote:
Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. So when you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, Novex is the one to choose.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument?
(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.
(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription.
(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex.


okay. I am putting my explanation to those who didn't choose option C as answer.

Premise: For sinus pain, 3 out of 4 hospitals give Novex. that is 75 % hospital use medicine Novex as pain killer.
Conclusion: Novex is the most effective pain killer.

We need to find something that will weaken conclusion 'Novex is the most effective'. Without looking at the option, if you would question, why Novex is not most effective even 75% hospitals use this medicine ?
There could be below possibilities.
1. Novex is used everywhere because, it is abundantly available.
2. The most effective pain killer may not be affordable to most of the patients.

Now going through the options
(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain. Argument talks only about sinus pain.
(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use. Argument talks about effectiveness and not tolerance.
(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford. Yes. Most of hospitals use Novex because it is easily affordable to everyone. It may not be the most effective.
(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. No one will use any medicine that is sold without prescription knowing that it is not effective.
(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex. It strengthens the argument.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2014, 05:09
Reviving the question thanks to VerbalBot

Quote:
This is a weaken question. Correct answers do not have to absolutely, without a doubt, in all circumstances weaken the conclusion. They only have to open up the possibility that the conclusion is not valid. The correct answer on a weaken question will typically accomplish this by introducing a new piece of information that calls into question an assumption made by the author.

Given -->75% of hospitals give patients Novex.

Claim --> Novex is most effective.

Assumption --> author assumes that effectiveness is the metric the hospitals use when deciding what medication to give.

Note --> the argument does not say WHY hospitals give patients Novex. We would all like to believe that they will choose based on the effectiveness of the medication, but that's not necessarily the case. We have no idea why these hospitals gave patients Novex. This is where the author's assumption comes in.

In order to weaken, the correct answer will open up the possibility that the hospitals use some other metric, not effectiveness, when deciding what medication to use.

And that's exactly what choice C does: the hospitals may be basing their decision on money, not effectiveness. That negatively affects the author's assumption that the hospitals must be deciding based upon effectiveness.

B talks about the 25% of the hospitals that don't give their patients Novex (at least to start). So, first, this is a minority (part of the author's argument was based on the behavior of the 75% majority). Second, if these 25% that don't start with Novex will then use Novex when the first medication doesn't work... if anything, that would seem to strengthen the author's assumption that Novex is the most effective. Perhaps that 25% uses some cheaper but inferior drug first and then switches to the more effective but more expensive Novex for those patients for whom the inferior drug fails.

More simply, though, B is out of scope because it's focusing on the 25% minority. The author isn't claiming that everyone uses Novex - only that it's the most effective because a majority uses it. Information about the minority doesn't affect that claim.

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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2018, 07:57
How is B incorrect? It states that hospitals are forced to prescribe Novex. It could be that the the drugs which are unbearable could be more effective than Novex. Pls correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2019, 11:19
Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. So when you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain, Novex is the one to choose.

Premise: most hospitals give Novex for sinus pain -> Novex is most effective sinus painkiller

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument?


(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain. out of scope, only care about sinus pain -> eliminate

(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use. this feels like a maybe at first: this means that Novex is sometimes prescribed bc it's the only safe alternative not bc it's most effective, which weakens the argument. BUT the opposite needs to strengthen the argument and it weakens it (many hospitals that DO usually use Novex do so for patients who can't tolerate the usual drug)-> eliminate [b]

(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford. [b] this one is a maybe: if Novex's manufacturer just undercut competition then hospitals prescribe it bc its cheapest, but we don't know that Novex is doing this.


(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. super tricky! This one looks great bc it provides an alternate explanation to effectiveness of how Novex might be diff from competitors. HOWEVER, this means that Novex is available OTC and does not need hospitals to prescribe, so out of scope

(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex. this one strengthens
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2019, 21:56
C: if you want the most effective painkiller for sinus pain - choose Novex

Prem: 3/4 hospitals give their patients Novex

A - this does not refute the claim that N is the most effective nor does it weaken the claim
B - This really just shows that N is a substitute. For all we know N could be as effective, but slower digesting (for example) or that N could be less effective. It's harder to see the effect this has
C - Correct. Initially thought this was a trap answer - this. C provides an alternate reason to doubt the claim - that hospitals actually just buy the cheapest drug.
D - hospitals don't usually require patients to give prescriptions- they give the patients the most effective treatment to turn them around, so this statement doesn't stand to weaken the claim
E - this actually strengthens the answer.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2019, 10:57
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Quote:
Just because three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex, does that mean that Novex is the most EFFECTIVE painkiller? Maybe there is another painkiller that is a bit more effective, but since Novex is much cheaper, the hospitals go with the cheaper option.

Choice (C) fits with this scenario. Drug manufacturers encourage hospitals to buy Novex by selling it at very low prices. Sure, this doesn't PROVE that a more effective option exists, but it certainly suggests that the hospitals might purchase Novex because it is cheap, not necessarily because it is the most effective option.

In other words, (C) provides an alternate explanation for the data cited in the ad and, thus, seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument. (C) is the best answer.


Hi Charles, it feels both B and C require assumptions. For C, we can say just because the manufacturer is selling the drug at low prices does not mean that it is not effective. Even best products adopt such marketing strategies. B at least indicates that hospitals are not using the drug as first preference.

Could you help dispel the doubt.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2019, 13:30
Key to note: 3 out of 4 hospitals choose Novex.

Question yourself? So what is 3 out of 4 hospitals choose Novex, was it affective?
What is the hospitals were charged less/ or provided free samples to give out Novex?

The idea behind the advertisement is to get people to buy Novex and increase sales. The correct answer choice will answer the question above.

Ans is C
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New post 27 Oct 2019, 12:45
So we need to break the logical chain of “for sinus pain, 3/4 hospitals give Novex -> most effective painkiller.” Meaning whether to find some other ‘more effective’ option, the fact that 3/4 give Novex – is bshit, etc…

(A) Some competing brands of painkillers are intended to reduce other kinds of pain in addition to sinus pain.
Irrelevant. Out.

(B) Many hospitals that do not usually use Novex will do so for those patients who cannot tolerate the drug the hospitals usually use.
Irrelevant. Out.

(C) Many drug manufacturers increase sales of their products to hospitals by selling these products to the hospitals at the lowest price the manufacturers can afford.
Seems ok. If Novex is affordable, than why not to purchase and give the patients?

(D) Unlike some competing brands of painkillers, Novex is available from pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription.
Hospitals <> self-healing. Out.

(E) In clinical trials Novex has been found more effective than competing brands of painkillers that have been on the market longer than Novex.
Strengthens. Out.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2019, 08:08
Rachna23 wrote:
GMATNinja

Quote:
Just because three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex, does that mean that Novex is the most EFFECTIVE painkiller? Maybe there is another painkiller that is a bit more effective, but since Novex is much cheaper, the hospitals go with the cheaper option.

Choice (C) fits with this scenario. Drug manufacturers encourage hospitals to buy Novex by selling it at very low prices. Sure, this doesn't PROVE that a more effective option exists, but it certainly suggests that the hospitals might purchase Novex because it is cheap, not necessarily because it is the most effective option.

In other words, (C) provides an alternate explanation for the data cited in the ad and, thus, seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument. (C) is the best answer.


Hi Charles, it feels both B and C require assumptions. For C, we can say just because the manufacturer is selling the drug at low prices does not mean that it is not effective. Even best products adopt such marketing strategies. B at least indicates that hospitals are not using the drug as first preference.

Could you help dispel the doubt.

Remember that we are looking for the answer choice that most seriously undermines the advertisement's claim -- we do not need to prove that the advertisement's claim is false. It is enough to show that one answer choice undermines the argument more seriously than the others.

The advertisement argues that Novex is the most effective medication for sinus pain, and the evidence supporting this argument is that three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. (C) directly undermines the relationship between the evidence and the conclusion by providing an alternate explanation for prescribing Novex -- namely, the low cost of the drug. This doesn't prove that Novex is not effective, but that is not our task. (C) casts doubt that the evidence presented in the passage supports the conclusion, which undermines the argument as a whole.

(B), on the other hand, does not directly undermine the argument. The following questions are raised when considering (B):

  • (B) states that "many" hospitals only prescribe Novex to patients who cannot tolerate another drug. How does this number of hospitals stack up against the "three out of four" cited in the argument? To choose this answer choice as the most serious weakener, we need to assume that this number is non-negligible, and there is no information to support this assumption.
  • Why do these hospitals not prescribe Novex to other patients? To choose (B) we need to assume that this decision is based on the efficacy of the drug, instead of some other factor (like price). Again, there is nothing to support this assumption.

While (C) doesn't prove that the advertisement's claim is wrong, it does cast serious doubt that the evidence cited in the passage supports the argument's conclusion. (B), on the other hand, would require several unsupported assumptions to cast doubt on the argument. For this reason, (C) most seriously undermines the argument and is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2019, 06:54
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Rachna23 wrote:
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Quote:
Just because three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex, does that mean that Novex is the most EFFECTIVE painkiller? Maybe there is another painkiller that is a bit more effective, but since Novex is much cheaper, the hospitals go with the cheaper option.

Choice (C) fits with this scenario. Drug manufacturers encourage hospitals to buy Novex by selling it at very low prices. Sure, this doesn't PROVE that a more effective option exists, but it certainly suggests that the hospitals might purchase Novex because it is cheap, not necessarily because it is the most effective option.

In other words, (C) provides an alternate explanation for the data cited in the ad and, thus, seriously undermines the advertisement’s argument. (C) is the best answer.


Hi Charles, it feels both B and C require assumptions. For C, we can say just because the manufacturer is selling the drug at low prices does not mean that it is not effective. Even best products adopt such marketing strategies. B at least indicates that hospitals are not using the drug as first preference.

Could you help dispel the doubt.

Remember that we are looking for the answer choice that most seriously undermines the advertisement's claim -- we do not need to prove that the advertisement's claim is false. It is enough to show that one answer choice undermines the argument more seriously than the others.

The advertisement argues that Novex is the most effective medication for sinus pain, and the evidence supporting this argument is that three out of four hospitals give their patients Novex. (C) directly undermines the relationship between the evidence and the conclusion by providing an alternate explanation for prescribing Novex -- namely, the low cost of the drug. This doesn't prove that Novex is not effective, but that is not our task. (C) casts doubt that the evidence presented in the passage supports the conclusion, which undermines the argument as a whole.

(B), on the other hand, does not directly undermine the argument. The following questions are raised when considering (B):

  • (B) states that "many" hospitals only prescribe Novex to patients who cannot tolerate another drug. How does this number of hospitals stack up against the "three out of four" cited in the argument? To choose this answer choice as the most serious weakener, we need to assume that this number is non-negligible, and there is no information to support this assumption.
  • Why do these hospitals not prescribe Novex to other patients? To choose (B) we need to assume that this decision is based on the efficacy of the drug, instead of some other factor (like price). Again, there is nothing to support this assumption.

While (C) doesn't prove that the advertisement's claim is wrong, it does cast serious doubt that the evidence cited in the passage supports the argument's conclusion. (B), on the other hand, would require several unsupported assumptions to cast doubt on the argument. For this reason, (C) most seriously undermines the argument and is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!


Thank a lot GMATNinja .... perfectly explained and clearly understood :thumbup:
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2019, 07:35
The ad says: 75% of hospitals give patients a certain medication — Novex. The next sentence draws the conclusion that NOVEX is the most effective painkiller for sinus pain. The advertisement is assuming that because it is given in 3 out of 4 hospitals, it must be the most effective painkiller for sinus. This may not be true — what if Novex had a contract with hospital systems and was simply the lowest cost provider?

a) irrelevant.

b) this is saying that if a patient has some adverse reaction to other painkillers, then the hospital will administer NOVEX — in that case, it seems like the other painkillers are more effective than Novex.

c) This suggests that one reason Novex is in these hospitals is because it’s the cheapest offering, not necessarily the best or most effective. KEEP.

d) Irrelevant

e) This strengthens the argument, suggesting that Novex is stronger than other painkillers.

ans c.
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Re: Advertisement: For sinus pain, three out of four hospitals give their   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2019, 07:35
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