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# Agricultural scientists have estimated that the annual loss

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18 Jan 2005, 15:35
saurabhmalpani wrote:
Paul wrote:
that of what relative pronouns refer to. Here is an example:

Roger did not win the election, which really surprised me--> as you can see, "which", like a participial phrase, does not necessarily refer to the immediately preceding noun

Paul don't mind but I don't think the above ELECTION sentence is correct.

Well because it's unclear wether RESULTS surprised you or ROGERS not winning surprised you moreover ETS OG tells us that WHICH can only be used to refer to the previous now not THE Phrase or IDEA.

Saurabh Malpani

From Webster dictionnary: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clau ... estrictive

Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of clauses.

Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of clauses.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends

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Paul

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18 Jan 2005, 16:25
hey Paul, first of all thanks for helping us out.

Well I don't know much about grammar but the RULE I follow is from the ETS.

49. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected
six small, previously unseen moons circling
Uranus, which doubles to twelve the number of
satellites now known as orbiting the distant planet
A) which doubles to twelve the number of
satellites now known as orbiting
B )doubling to twelve the number of satellites now
known to orbit
C )which doubles to twelve the number of
satellites now known in orbit around
D )doubling to twelve the number of satellites now
known as orbiting
E) which doubles to twelve the number of
satellites now known that orbit

The pronoun which should be used to refer to a previously
mentioned noun, not to the idea expressed in an entire
clause.
In A, C, and E, which seems to refer to a vague
concept involving the detection of moons, but there is no
specific noun, such as detection, to which it can refer. Also
in E, the use of the phrasing the number... now known that
orbit is ungrammatical and unclear. B and D use the correct
participial form, doubling, to modify the preceding clause,
but D, like A, uses known as orbiting rather than known to
orbit, a phrase that is more idiomatic in context. B,

Well this is what I follow and Best Fits into my head!

Well may be webster is correct I am not gramar guru infact I hardly know any grammar rules.

Thanks
Saurabh Malpani

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18 Jan 2005, 20:27
Saurabh, perhaps I just like to argue in SC This will help us learn more rules I definitely agree with you that in general, relative pronouns usually refer to the immediately preceding words. However there are always exceptions to the rule. I don't believe the concept I explained will be tested in the actual GMAT but it's sweet to know it does exist
On a different tangent, you can see that your example exactly substantiates my previous explanation on participial clauses not referring to the immediately preceding word. Hence, "approaching..." in (C) in the original question does refer to "loss" instead of "land"
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Paul

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18 Jan 2005, 20:44
Paul wrote:
Saurabh, perhaps I just like to argue in SC This will help us learn more rules "

Of definetly Thats Why I like to argue things out because they Clear my CONCEPT + I LEARN DIFFERENT THINGS.

Thanks once again for helping out.

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18 Jan 2005, 20:47
Paul wrote:

On a different tangent, you can see that your example exactly substantiates my previous explanation on participial clauses not referring to the immediately preceding word. Hence, "approaching..." in (C) in the original question does refer to "loss" instead of "land"

But again I still think D is much much Better if we REMOVE "per yr"

Thanks
Saurabh Malpani

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28 Jan 2005, 22:58
Thanks for the awesome grammatical lesson Paul I learned a lot from you.

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04 Feb 2005, 10:42
Hi Pauli - maybe I am missing summit ..or perhaps I just never read the replies..RC is not my strongest attribute - But.... word redundancy is a key issue..I never even bothered to check the grammatical efficacy of the options ... its a clear C....B was a contender but the sentence is very much wacko jacko...distorts the meaning big time..
annual and per year..same thing

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09 Feb 2005, 13:10
Paul wrote:
I would go for C. Why should C not be right? E by the way has run-on sentence problem
I think D has unappropriate participial phrase location
an annual loss approaching two million acres of arable land per year results from erosion caused by heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls
In red is the participial phrase. The main subject here is "annual loss". It seems like it is the "annual loss" which results from the erosion. Thus, besides from being more wordy, D also has a more ambiguous comparison of subject to complement. C is shorter and more precise and would be my pick.
Erosion...results in loss of arable land approaching...
In C, the subject clearly is the cause of the loss of arable land which(the land loss) in turn approaches two million acres per year.

Paul, if In D, we change "annual loss approaching" to "annual loss of land approaching", then we have" the annual loss of land resulted from erosion", will it be right?

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09 Feb 2005, 15:07
DLMD, the second part of the sentence would still make "annual loss... per year" redundant
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Paul

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09 Feb 2005, 15:07

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