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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2016, 03:47
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Date of establishing beginning of Staple crop introducing in WE can help to determine beginning of Agriculture socities there.
1> what if they are introduced as a wild crop and there is huge time gap that they become part of agricultural crop, then conclusion fall apart.
2> or what if they have some other staple crops then the time you got from is after the actual time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.2nd reasoning.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops. But they were not domesticated. End of the story.

C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa. Outside of Africa is not our concern. We want to know the beginning of agriculture era in Western Africa.
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2016, 03:52
Johnjojop wrote:
Hi,
Can somebody explain why E is wrong?
If Kola and Okra wernt there at the time when rice and yams were introduced, then the agriculture society will not be formed. Please explain.
Thanks!
John


E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

negate

Kola and okra were not domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there. => So what even if they are domesticated earlier, they can determine the beginning of agriculture society. As they are not staple food. Only staple food can do that as per the argument. Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods.

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2016, 00:13
A is the correct answer

Conclusion: If we discover when rice and yams rice and yams were introduced into western Africa we will be able to know when agricultural societies arose in Western Africa

Premise: There are 3 of them (Given as facts/evidences)
Evidence 1: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops
Evidence 2: the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere
Evidence 3: Rice and yams were the first recorded staple crops.

C&D are simple information
E is irrelevant
B stands a chance. But, it is not necessarily required (It is possible that, inspite of plant existence, residents did not have process for conversion of food crop)

A wins here
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2016, 20:23
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It is always better to simplify the argument -

Premise 1 - Agricultural Societies --> Staple Crops
Premise 2 - Rice and yam --> First Staple Crops in Africa

Conclusion - Time when rice and yam were introduced --> Start of Agricultural Societies in W.Africa

Let us look at each of the answer options -

A - let us negate this answer option.
"people developed staple crops before rice and yam were introduced" - this statement weakens the conclusion. If this were indeed true, then it is entirely possible that agricultural societies developed before the time when rice and yam were introduced.

B - even if there are plants that could be domesticated to be staple crops, we do not know whether they were ever domesticated.
Negating this option does not weaken the argument.

C - Not relevant.
We are only concerned with what happened in Western Africa.

D - Does not mean that kola and rice are/were used as staple foods. This answer option, thus, has no impact on the argument.
(If they were indeed used as staple foods, this could weaken the argument).

E - "Domesticated" is not the same as "staple foods".
We are concerned with whether they were staple crops or not.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 04:15
A it is:
Say societies cultivated other staple crops way before rice and yams were introduced, then the authors conclusion that discovering when rice and yam were introduced would establish the earliest date when agricultural societies have arisen in W.A. will not hold true, agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 17:21
nakib77 wrote:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.


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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 15:41
nakib77 wrote:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

The fact: All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams.

The missing information: People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Conclusion:Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2017, 08:05
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

Option A is the answer
It gives us proper assumption that the African people did not develop staple crop that they stopped growing after rice and yams were introduced.
If this was true then we can not deduce when agriculture societies originated.
Thus the argument fails if we negate option A

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2018, 20:39
Sorry for bouncing this subject again, but when the answer states:

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Does the double negative translate to: People in Western Africa still developed staple crops even when rice and yams were introduced?
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2018, 21:05
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

* For assumption questions, I like to find the Conclusion, then NEGATE the A/C to BREAK the Conclusion!
- Conclusion: discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.



A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
- Rewrite: People in western Africa developed staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.This means we discovered that rice and yams cannot determine the earliest date at which agri societies could have arisen

B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
- Rewrite: There are plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops. Out of scope. Does not give us info to determine the earliest date agri societies could have arisen

C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
- Rewrite: Rice and yams were not grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa. Out of scope. Why do we care about agri societies OUTSIDE of western Africa?

D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
- Rewrite: Kola and okra are not better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are. Out of scope. Again, does not give us info to determine the earliest date agri societies could have arisen

E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
- Rewrite: Kola and okra were not domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there. Out of scope. Kola and okra not our concern: they are not staple crops. So we don't care about them at all.


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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2018, 21:05

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