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# Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple

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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 05:46
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 16 Jul 2016, 21:09, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 07:50
nakib77 wrote:
Q40:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

The answer must be B. Since the passage says that Rice and Yams are the staples that were introduced into Western Africa, crops domesticated prior to the introduction of Rice and Yam did not serve as staples. Otherwise Kole and Okra could have been the staples. B gives the assumption on which the passage builds.
If as A says that people stopped cultivating staples, then there would be no necessity for the people to adopt rice and yams as staples.
D is irrelevant.
E flows directly from the statement.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 11:18
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Evidence 1: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops
Evidence 2: the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere
Evidence 3: Rice and yams were the first recorded staple crops.
Conclusion: If we discover when rice and yams rice and yams were introduced into western Africa we will be able to know when agricultural societies arose in Western Africa.

D and E are irrelevant. C is out of scope. Only A and B remain. If B is not true the argument is still valid. However A is necessary since if the had developped, then the agricultural period would have started before and the prediction of the author would be correct.
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2012, 08:21
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and
okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental,
not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from
elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering
when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at
which agricultural societies could have arisen there. Which of the following is an
assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice
and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food
crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of
western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated
rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced
there.

Can anyone please explain vvhat this argument means
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Re: Staple Crops [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2012, 10:19
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The argument evaluation:
Agr societies cannot exits without SC (staple crops)
K and O plants are known to have been domesticated in WA, but they are all supplemental, not SC
All recorded SC grown in WA were introduced from else where at some unknown date, with R and Y.
=> Discovering R and Y in WA will find the earliest date at which Agr societies have arisen

The conclusion here lacks the gap between the Staple Crop, Rice, Yam, and Arg societies. Choice A fills this gap. If not:

People in western Africa DEVELOPED staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice
and yams were introduced. => the agriculture societies will develop sooner than when the rice and yam were cultivated.
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Re: Staple Crops [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2012, 10:48
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Premise
Conclusion

Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and
okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental,
not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from
elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering
when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at
which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice
and yams were introduced. It is clearly stated that agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Therefore, to establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there, the author has to assume that no other staple crops existed before rice and yams were introduced. Otherwise, if other staple crops had been introduced previous to rice and yams, then it would be hard to establish the date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there, thus weakening the conclusion of the argument and making this asnwer choice CORRECT.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food
crops. Extra information irrelevant to the conclusion. INCORRECT
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of
western Africa. Extra information irrelevant to the conclusion. INCORRECT
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated
rice and yams are. Extra information irrelevant to the conclusion. INCORRECT
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced
there. The author is concerned with staple crops, not supplemental crops. INCORRECT.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2014, 10:30
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Hi,

I can certainly try.

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Here is A, with I think the 2 tricky bits in red.

It is sort of a double negative. So when you see something like that you need to take each section separately:

1) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops
- So people didn't do something

2) they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

- This is what they didn't do

With this split it becomes clearer.

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

In the context of the question, this is certainly an assumption. I.e. if they were growing something prior to rice and yams they could still have been an agricultural society.

James
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2014, 12:13
dear plumber 250.....

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

1. how you deciphered the statement...is as follows...

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

2. however i was understanding it as follows...

They did not enhance/ further revive/ develop the staple crop that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.....

I appreciated that they were already cultivating something that they did not pursue after imported staple crops...

COULD YOU EXPLAIN PLEASE.....
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 07:15
Hi Semwal,

I'm afraid I don't really understand your question.

But I can talk generally.

The key thing the passage is talking about is the TIMING of the change to an agricultural society.

The question is looking for an assumption that the evidence rests upon, regarding the introduction of foreign staples.

So, the only thing that matters is what are they assuming happened before the introduction. Then logically, it must be they didn't have other staples, that they then stopped growing.

Hence A.

I don;t understand your interpretation of A, as you seem to suggest it is talking about something happening after the arrival of the other crops. It is not, it is referring to the time before.

James
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 14:09
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

I can certainly try.

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Here is A, with I think the 2 tricky bits in red.

It is sort of a double negative. So when you see something like that you need to take each section separately:

1) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops
- So people didn't do something

2) they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

- This is what they didn't do

With this split it becomes clearer.

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

In the context of the question, this is certainly an assumption. I.e. if they were growing something prior to rice and yams they could still have been an agricultural society.

James
Does the 2nd part("that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced") really matter?
Shouldn't choice A with chopped-off content "People in western Africa did not develop staple crops" be enough as answer choice?
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Last edited by joshnsit on 08 Jan 2014, 14:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 14:16
nakib77 wrote:
Q40:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
Guys, What is this Q40(as mentioned in the heading and the question, see highlighted above) of? Any idea what is the source?
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Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2014, 08:22
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and
okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental,
not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from
elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering
when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at
which agricultural societies could have arisen there. Which of the following is an
assumption on which the argument depends?

The argument looks pretty solid, thus we need to weaken any idea supporting a likely cultivation of staple crops before the introduction of rice and yams

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice
and yams were introduced.
Fits my prethinking, hold.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food
crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of
western Africa.
earliest agricultural societies? mhm.. we don't know that
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated
rice and yams are.
We don't care about this, moreover kola and okra are supplemental, not staple.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced
there.
kola and okra are not staple crops..

Can anyone please explain vvhat this argument means[/quote]
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Se [#permalink]

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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods.
All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

Last edited by carcass on 04 Jun 2014, 17:51, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the title of the question
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Re: assumption 600 level [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 11:17
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods.
All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

after i finished the passage, My rethinking was : the conclusion "discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there" would not be true if Western Africa have another staple corps before getting the rice and rams. so my assumption was: Western Africa didn't plant other staple plants before receiving the Rice and Yams. but i couldn't find something similar to my rethinking among the answer choices. My problem was : the way they wrote answer A is very weird so i couldn't realize that "A" is the same as my rethinking.

Answer A : "People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced"
i couldn't understand this phrase "that they stopped cultivating"

Any advice to how can i understand unclear answers in future ?

thanks
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Se [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 17:52
Hi,

please before to post a question use the search button, because probably the same was already discussed.

Secondly use the first sentence of the same as title, to help future student to identify the question easily.

All these points are mandatory.

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Re: assumption 600 level [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2014, 07:41
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shagalo wrote:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods.
All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

after i finished the passage, My rethinking was : the conclusion "discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there" would not be true if Western Africa have another staple corps before getting the rice and rams. so my assumption was: Western Africa didn't plant other staple plants before receiving the Rice and Yams. but i couldn't find something similar to my rethinking among the answer choices. My problem was : the way they wrote answer A is very weird so i couldn't realize that "A" is the same as my rethinking.

Answer A : "People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced"
i couldn't understand this phrase "that they stopped cultivating"

Any advice to how can i understand unclear answers in future ?

thanks

Hi,

Thank you for your post.

When I look at your post, I see that you have tried to apply the process to solve the question. However, in your prethinking, you have missed an important point here which could have led to the difficulty that you faced.

The assumption that you identified in your prethinking is – “Western Africa didn't plant other staple plants before receiving the Rice and Yams.”.

If I interpret your statement correctly, according to you, the assumption made by the author is: “People in western Africa did not develop staple crops before rice and yams were introduced there”.

Let’s look at how you reached the above statement. If we refer to the argument, it says that rice and yam were the first known staple crops that were grown in Africa. From this statement, the author makes a jump by saying that discovering when rice and yams were introduced into Western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies would have arisen there. Now first known/recorded evidence and earliest date could be two different things. So you are right that the other author is assuming that there were no other staple crops grown before the introduction of rice and yams, but how is he assuming that? What is the link he/she is making? Obviously, the author is making a link between the timing of the two event and, hence, suggesting that one could deduce the timing of one event (earliest date) from that of the other (introduction of rice and yams).

Now an important step in pre-thinking the correct assumption is thinking of scenarios in which the conclusion will not hold. Accordingly, what if one argued against the link by suggesting that there were crops that were grown before the introduction of rice and yams (this is the part that you have addressed in your assumption) but of which there is no record (this is the part you have missed)?

If crops were grown before the introduction of rice and yams, can there be a situation where the crops were not included along with rice and yam at the time the first record was captured? Such a situation is possible if the cultivation of those crops was stopped before the first record was captured. Under such circumstances, will the author’s argument hold? The answer is NO! Therefore, it is to guard against such a consideration that option A is so constructed: People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
In the light of the above discussion, my advice is that you need to focus a bit more on the application of the process. You are indeed on the right path. More practice in asking yourself the right questions in the pre-thinking phase will ensure that you do not miss the right answer because of the way it’s been written.
Also, I can understand how you may have found the answer choice complex. Here, I would like to advise you to, use the concepts learned in the SC course to your benefit in CR. 
What we prescribe in our SC course will really help you understand such long/complex sentences. Break down complex statements in to segments/clauses. The option statement in this case says: “People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced”. Breaking it into segments, we get:
1. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops
2. that (refers back to the staple crops in the first clause) they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced

So in the above sentence basically says that those people did not develop some type of staple crops. What type of staple crops are these? These are staple crops whose cultivation was stopped once rice and yams were introduced there. Hence, this statement basically guards the author’s argument against a possible counter.

Hope the above discussion helps!

Thanks
Aninda
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. [#permalink]

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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops...................fact

Several food plants are known to have been domesticated in western Africa,butthey are all supplemental, not staple, foods.

All therecorded staple cropsgrown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams............so they are the primary ones

Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.............that portion is a bit confusing but note that this choice explains that there are no native staple crops in western Africa prior to rice and yams introduction.

B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops..........One more strong contender. ...................I got stuck between options A and B. Opted for B but found amazing reasons from prashant's and Ron's explanations below.

(B) On negation this statement becomes:
There are SOME plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.

Even if there were/are some plants that are staple crops and are native to Western Africa, we don’t know whether these staple crops were planted before the plantation of rice/yams by the agricultural societies, or after staple crops rice/yams were introduced in Western Africa. If it was the former case then it would weaken the conclusion and hence can be a valid assumption. If it is the latter case, then it’s not going to affect the conclusion anyway. Since we don’t know of this information, so this can’t be an assumption - since an assumption is something that must be true for the conclusion to be valid.

Ron: you can also kill B using the negation test.

if you negate B, you get:
There are plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.

...to which the answer is:
"ok, great!
but (according to the passage) no one has actually domesticated any of them, so i don't care." the argument is not affected at all. (remember that, when an actual assumption is negated, the argument should be completely destroyed/invalidated.)

C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa..........we are only aware that they were introduced in western Africa from somewhere else. It does not have to be true that they were staple crops of that region.

D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are........We dont have to assume this since it is ok even if they are a bit less suited in comparison.

E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.............Does not matter since they are supplemental groups and not staple crops.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 15:02
Johnjojop wrote:
Hi,
Can somebody explain why E is wrong?
If Kola and Okra wernt there at the time when rice and yams were introduced, then the agriculture society will not be formed. Please explain.
Thanks!
John

Kola and Okra are supplement and are not staple food and hence not relevant. The argument is about the staple crop. Hope that helps.
Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple   [#permalink] 17 Jul 2016, 15:02

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# Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple

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