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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a

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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

a.Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
b.There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
c.Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
d.There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
e.Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

Need to clarify an imp concept. Would appreciate you responses. Will provide oa later.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2011, 21:15
narrowed down to b n c

c mentions "only". i ll go with b

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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 13:58
ajit257 wrote:
Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

a.Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
b.There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
c.Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
d.There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
e.Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

Need to clarify an imp concept. Would appreciate you responses. Will provide oa later.


A: outside the scope
B: only a repetition of the evidence shown by the consumer
D: weakens the argument
E: outside the scope

=> C: microwave ovens are not totally safe (fact) and since there is no other criterion by which they can be judged to be acceptable as standard, the consumer advocates are right.

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 14:27
C +1

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 15:51

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 16:34
OA is C. But i have a question to ask. I was told that choices that contain strong words like 'only' are mostly wrong choices so can someone help me out over here so i don't make this mistake again.
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ajit257 wrote:
OA is C. But i have a question to ask. I was told that choices that contain strong words like 'only' are mostly wrong choices so can someone help me out over here so i don't make this mistake again.


fair reflection.

is correct what you say in general, but sometimes the context is also important.

For istance: what you say could be used when you have two choices and this strategy can make the difference, but in this case we have ONE choice that overall is logic; hence is not important that there is an extreme word.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 23:00
(С)
but i also read that such strong version with words like "only" tend to be incorrect.
Thanks carcass for mentioning context.

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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2011, 00:46
ajit257 wrote:
OA is C. But i have a question to ask. I was told that choices that contain strong words like 'only' are mostly wrong choices so can someone help me out over here so i don't make this mistake again.

The problem is "are mostly wrong", which means not always. Here it's the word "only" that makes the difference.
I guess you should not use this strategy without trying to understand the context as carcass advised you.

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New post 14 Apr 2012, 16:28
IMO c because it links together how what criteria is considered safe.
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New post 26 Oct 2014, 00:31
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C is the correct answer.. 'B' gives only an example of how a person may get injured...

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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 11:10
Can someone please help me answer this question?I cant figure it out (even after reading the explanation :( )

Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

A) Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
B) There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
C) Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
D) There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
E) Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 21:18
Difficult to completely rule out option 'B'. It provides credence to the conclusion and makes the conclusion more believable. Also, option C closes the logical leap from "microwave ovens are not completely safe" to "microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance" and provides an inherent assumption. Marked C but, need help with B.

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 23:11
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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

Pr.1: MO has become a standard appliance
Pr.2: MOs are not completely safe as has sometimes resulted into serious injuries.
Conc.: CAs: MOs should not be accepted as standard appliances until they are certified as completely safe.
=> Complete Safety --> Certification of Standard Appliance

For Cause-effect Strengthen type Questions, If X-->Y then,
1. only X shall lead to Y [ X --> Y ]
2. Y does not lead to X [ Y -/-> X ]
3. No other factor leads to Y [ Z -/-> Y ]
4. Non-occurrence of X leads to non-occurrence of Y [ -X --> -Y ]
5. Data given in the stem is Correct i.e. no error in data provided such as survey, sampling, group etc.

Now, for said Question, we can count it as Cause-effect type strengthen type. Therefore, whatever choice reinforces the idea further will be correct answer. Only 'C' seems to qualify for that.


a. Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking - Question is about safety of MO and not side-effects of MOs in our daily life hence Irrelevant.
b. There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens - IMO this options seems to weaken instead strengthening the argument because it is saying super-heated liquid are responsible for injuries or burn and not some fault in MO.It might be the case the uses did not read manual properly or he did not know how to operate the oven and he set high temp. which caused injury.

c. Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.” - Go with one of our pre-thinkings that Only X-->Y hence Correct.
d. There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance - If this is not helping the conclusion then in someway it is breaking the conclusion.
e. Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens - OFS


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New post 01 Dec 2014, 09:11
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As per your reasoning for option B - because it is saying super-heated liquid are responsible for injuries or burn and not some fault in MO. The premise never says that there is some fault in MO. MOs use occasionally results in serious injury. Here the author is talking about all types of uses. Premise- microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. So, even if the user did not read the manual or has set the MO at high temperature he still uses the MO. So, it doesn't weaken the conclusion.

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New post 05 Apr 2015, 00:27
Conclusion: microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.
Premises:
- microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury
- every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food
- it has become a standard appliance in most households
The gap here is between the "standard" criteria and the safety thing. C fills the gap.
C is CORRECT.

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New post 05 Apr 2015, 20:10
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(B) People have been burnt by the super-heated liquids. I don't think that's the microwaves fault. One can get burnt by super-heated liquids no matter what appliance they have come out from. The statement doesn't say that the people got burnt because of the microwave per se. So, this option is incorrect. Incorrect

(C) Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.” (You have to assume this statement to be true- just as you do for all other strengthen type questions).
This is the only option that strengthens the advocates position. The advocate says that the microwave oven should be accepted as a standard appliance only if it can be certified as completely safe. Option (C) says there is one and only 1 criteria to mark an appliance as "standard" i.e. it should be absolutely safe. So that means there is no other way to classify an appliance as standard. Therefore, this statement strengthens the advocates position. Correct
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 13:31
ajit257 wrote:
Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

a.Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
b.There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
c.Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
d.There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
e.Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

Need to clarify an imp concept. Would appreciate you responses. Will provide oa later.


I am sorry for such a stupid question. I just reviewed concepts of CR and thought third party views are not conclusions. Can you please explain, how you guys arrived that "Studies have shown" and "some consumer advocates" are part of conclusions.

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New post 16 Apr 2017, 03:40
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The passage makes the premise that microwave ovens are not completely safe. This is followed by a conclusion by the consumer advocates that microwave ovens should not be accepted as standard appliances. Since there is nothing in the passage that provides an explicit link between the safety of microwave ovens and their acceptability as standard appliances, the consumer advocates’ conclusion is based on an assumption (i.e., an implied premise) that “an appliance should be accepted as standard only if it is found to be completely safe.” The most effective way to strengthen such a conclusion is to show that such an assumption is indeed true.

Option C:- "Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
(C) CORRECT. This choice best strengthens the argument by making explicit the assumption upon which the consumer advocates’ argument was based.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a   [#permalink] 16 Apr 2017, 03:40
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