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Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids

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Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids: earthworms and lugworms. Earthworms tend to emerge from the mud early in the morning when there is more moisture and nutrients. As a result, earthworms have access to more nutrients and thus reproduce far faster than the lugworm, which spends much of the day submerged in the mud. Nonetheless, the lugworm population far outnumbers that of the earthworm.

Which of the following, if true, helps LEAST to resolve the apparent discrepancy noted above?

(A) Lugworms have specialized taste receivers, which allow them to access nutrients below ground far more easily than earthworms can.

(B) The whooping crane, the earthworm’s chief predator, hunts along the mudflats during the time the earthworms are feeding at the surface.

(C ) Lugworms resemble the color of the mudflat, and are thus more difficult to spot by predators than earthworms are.

(D) Compared to the lugworm, earthworms are able to consume fewer nutrients at one time.

(E) Lugworms tends to emerge in the evening, when the number of predators is less than during the early morning hours, when the earthworm is exposed on the mudflat.
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Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms and lugworms. Earthworms tend to emerge from the mud early in the morning when there is more moisture and nutrients. As a result, earthworms have access to more nutrients and thus reproduce far faster than the lugworm, which spends much of the day submerged in the mud. Nonetheless, the lugworm population far outnumbers that of the earthworm.

Which of the following, if true, helps LEAST to resolve the apparent discrepancy noted above?

A) Lugworms have specialized taste receivers, which allow them to access nutrients below ground far more easily than earthworms can.

B) The whooping crane, the earthworm’s chief predator, hunts along the mudflats during the time the earthworms are feeding at the surface.

C) Lugworms resemble the color of the mudflat, and are thus more difficult to spot by predators than earthworms are.

D) Compared to the lugworm, earthworms are able to consume fewer nutrients at one time.

E) Lugworms tend to emerge in the evening, when the number of predators is less than during the early morning hours, when the earthworm is exposed on the mudflat.

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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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Earthworms come early in the morning, eat nutrients, reproduce faster
Lugworms just stay in the mud but still their number is high. Why?


A) Lugworms have specialized taste receivers, which allow them to access nutrients below ground far more easily than earthworms can.
If Lugworms are able to access nutrients below the ground more easily than earthworms, than it is possible from the logic in premise (more nutrients-more population) that number of lugworms is higher

B) The whooping crane, the earthworm’s chief predator, hunts along the mudflats during the time the earthworms are feeding at the surface.
So, while the earthworms are eating, they are also being eaten by their predators, it can explain the "gap" in their numbers. It might be the case that number of lugworms did not increase, and just stayed same while the number of earthworms kept on decreasing explaining the paradox.

C) Lugworms resemble the color of the mudflat, and are thus more difficult to spot by predators than earthworms are.
If they can camouflage their appearance, it is easier for them to escape their prey. This also explains that while lugworms are nicely roaming around, earthworms are being eaten, thus reducing earthworms number.

D) Compared to the lugworm, earthworms are able to consume fewer nutrients at one time.
Well, we are not told how consuming "rate" will affect the population. We are just told that if you eat less, you will reproduce less.
Say if you consume fewer nutrients at one time, but it is still enough to reproduce then the population will rise.
However, if you consume fewer nutrients at one time, and it is still NOT enough to reproduce, then the population will NOT rise.
So, this choice can go either way to either solve or NOT solve the Paradox.

E) Lugworms tend to emerge in the evening, when the number of predators is less than during the early morning hours, when the earthworm is exposed on the mudflat.
If Lugworms emerge when there are less predators then they are saved from eaten thus helping to preserve their population
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2015, 09:43
i think it should be E bcoz the argument given is already mentioned in the Q itself hence doesn't add much in terms of explaining the discrepancy.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 04:32
Good question!
D is the only choice that doesn't explain why lugwarms reproduce faster than earthwarms.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2015, 22:37
As a result, earthworms have access to more nutrients and thus reproduce far faster than the lugworm, which spends much of the day submerged in the mud

Then clearly (D) Compared to the lugworm, earthworms are able to consume fewer nutrients at one time. - does not matter to its reproduction.
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Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2015, 16:56
what is wrong with E.In the passage it is not mentioned that nutrients are present in the evening.It says in the day moisture and nutrients are available.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2015, 09:00
mahakmalik wrote:
what is wrong with E.In the passage it is not mentioned that nutrients are present in the evening.It says in the day moisture and nutrients are available.

The question is about reproduction rate not nutrients. E explains the difference in reproduction rates (since more predators hunt in the morning)
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 06:20
tia2112 wrote:
Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms and lugworms. Earthworms tend to emerge from the mud early in the morning when there is more moisture and nutrients. As a result, earthworms have access to more nutrients and thus reproduce far faster than the lugworm, which spends much of the day submerged in the mud. Nonetheless, the lugworm population far outnumbers that of the earthworm.

Which of the following, if true, helps LEAST to resolve the apparent discrepancy noted above?

A) Lugworms have specialized taste receivers, which allow them to access nutrients below ground far more easily than earthworms can.
So , LWs also have good access to nutrients >> good reproduction cycle >> it might lead to greater population


B) The whooping crane, the earthworm’s chief predator, hunts along the mudflats during the time the earthworms are feeding at the surface.
So , another reason to account for the low population of EW could be that they are hunted far more often by Predators .This choice explains exactly that.


C) Lugworms resemble the color of the mudflat, and are thus more difficult to spot by predators than earthworms are.
This choice again implies that EW is hunted more often than LW , thus explaining less population

D) Compared to the lugworm, earthworms are able to consume fewer nutrients at one time.
Hmmmm , at first this choice seems to be explaining the low population , but carefully think does lower consumption at one time indicate overall lower consumption ?
No . For ex - EW consumes 5 g at once , LW consumes 6 g at once , but if EW consumes greater number of times than LW , then overall consumption will be greater.
So , this choice does not go far enough to explain or least explains that LW s numbers are significantly higher than EWs


E) Lugworms tend to emerge in the evening, when the number of predators is less than during the early morning hours, when the earthworm is exposed on the mudflat.
This choice is similar to choice B and C .

thus , D is the correct answer

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Discrepancy - The Population of LW far outnumbers that of EW even though EW has better access , faster reproduction rate.

Prethinking - Any choice that either increases the paradox or is irrelevant in explaining the paradox will be the correct answer.

Please see the explanation above.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 08:02
Does not option A go against the premise of the argument that "earthworms have access to more nutrients".
Even if Lugworms can access nutrients below ground far more easily, Earthworms still have access to more nutrients,
Thus from the "Access to nutrients" point of view, A does nothing to resolve the paradox. Then why not A?
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 08:02
Does not option A go against the premise of the argument that "earthworms have access to more nutrients".
Even if Lugworms can access nutrients below ground far more easily, Earthworms still have access to more nutrients,
Thus from the "Access to nutrients" point of view, A does nothing to resolve the paradox. Then why not A?
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia exist two types of annelids: earthworms [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 08:48
ZenYogi wrote:
Does not option A go against the premise of the argument that "earthworms have access to more nutrients".
Even if Lugworms can access nutrients below ground far more easily, Earthworms still have access to more nutrients,
Thus from the "Access to nutrients" point of view, A does nothing to resolve the paradox. Then why not A?



The premise of the argument only deals with EW having more access to nutrients above the soil. there is nothing mentioned about EW having more access to nutrients below the soil , a case that is mentioned in A.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 19:05
ZenYogi wrote:
Does not option A go against the premise of the argument that "earthworms have access to more nutrients".
Even if Lugworms can access nutrients below ground far more easily, Earthworms still have access to more nutrients,
Thus from the "Access to nutrients" point of view, A does nothing to resolve the paradox. Then why not A?


I agree - ZenYogi. I am having difficulty understanding the difference between A and D when both rely on the access to nutrients. I suppose D specifies that the earthworms CONSUME less nutrients while A only says lugworms have ACCESS to nutrients. It doesn't necessarily mean they consume more. So now I suppose that rules A out.
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Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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ZenYogi wrote:
Does not option A go against the premise of the argument that "earthworms have access to more nutrients".
Even if Lugworms can access nutrients below ground far more easily, Earthworms still have access to more nutrients,
Thus from the "Access to nutrients" point of view, A does nothing to resolve the paradox. Then why not A?


Consider this way: The Lugworms get sufficient nutrients below the mud because of their special taste receivers. Hence they are not required to come above. On the other Hand, Earthworms do not get their required nutrients below mud, and hence they are compelled to come up. Thus Lugworms are more efficient in nutrient collection, and hence have higher population.

Option A states an explanation why Lugworms, despite remaining under mud, COULD have enough nutrient (even more than that earthworms may have above ground) to have a larger population. You are not required to establish (or prove) the explanation, but anything that COULD explain the discrepency is a good enough answer.

Hence A can explain the discrepency and not the correct answer.
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Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2017, 08:59
I feel like the question is giving the answer, 4 of 5 options all talks about the predator and survival of worms
Re: Along the mudflats of Garantia, exist two types of annelids   [#permalink] 07 May 2017, 08:59
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