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# Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a

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Manager
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2014, 18:15
mikemcgarry wrote:
sa2222 wrote:
Does anyone know the various usages of hopes accepted in the GMAT.

Dear sa2222,

For starters, see these GMAT idiom flashcards:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/flashcards/idioms

Also, see this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom ... -and-fear/

Let me know if you have any further questions.
Mike

Hello Mike,

Thanks for your reply. I know you have explained this question on this post. But, I just want to ask you about something general. If you see Mugdha's explanation above and even in general for GMAT SC questions - If we see the underlined portion "with a particular tense - e.g. Present tense", then should we keep the same tense? if the sentence is making sense. And, even though if a different choice looks correct, like "E" in this case, don't change tense if not needed.
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2014, 12:32
sa2222 wrote:
Hello Mike,

Thanks for your reply. I know you have explained this question on this post. But, I just want to ask you about something general. If you see Mugdha's explanation above and even in general for GMAT SC questions - If we see the underlined portion "with a particular tense - e.g. Present tense", then should we keep the same tense? if the sentence is making sense. And, even though if a different choice looks correct, like "E" in this case, don't change tense if not needed.

Dear sa2222,
I'm happy to respond.

Here's the thing: grammar is not mathematics. You are looking for clear unambiguous rules, and these don't exist.

Suppose a GMAT SC, in the underlined sections, has a verb tense that seems to make sense. Should it remain unchanged? Maybe. Sometimes, it's possible to say something in two different correct ways, involving two different verb tenses, and if something other grammatical feature is wrong in the underlined part, that could result in a right answer in a different tense. Also, what seems to make sense gets very tricky with indirect speech. The rules of indirect speech are subtle and not always intuitive. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/sequence-o ... orrection/

There is no black & white rule here. There is absolutely no way to get to GMAT SC mastery through some "complete list" of grammar rules. If you are trying to get to mastery simply by learning all the rules, know that this project is doomed to failure. To get to the level of mastery, you need to read. You need to read every day, for an hour a day --- that's over and above time spent on other GMAT studying. Through reading, you will develop a deeper sense for the language, an "ear" for grammar. You cannot get there by learning any list of rules.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2014, 01:05
Hello Mike,

Thanks for your reply. Yes, reading is a must. Also I want to mention that after reviewing the SC rules, reading is making much more sense. Because, then I am able to identify in the sentence - oh its a modifier they are using, "clauses" connected with "and" are parallel, etc etc. Its fun how you start identifying the rules you have read.

Thanks
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 17:51
Hi Mike,

Regards
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2015, 03:13
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.
(A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally
(B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally
(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally

Indeed a good question, lets start with meaning it is saying that something started in past is having it 's effect in present --->indication of present perfect and you you look word ' a surge' which is singular so has should be used as verb--->'d' is correct singular and as well as present perfect

Hope this helps
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2015, 00:02
The subject of the first clause, the singular noun surge, must take the singular verb has raised rather than the plural have raised. It is superfluous and pointless to say that people hope both that there is a recovery and that such a recovery is underway. In this context, there is adds nothing and can be omitted to create a more concise sentence.
A Subject and verb do not agree; there is …finally underway is awkward and wordy.
B For there being is awkward and wordy.
C Had raised is the wrong verb tense; for …being is awkward and wordy.
D Correct. In this sentence, the subject and verb agree, and the verb is in the appropriate tense; a recovery is finally is clear and concise.
E For a recovery finally is awkward and—to the extent that it can be seen as grammatical—does not make sense.
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2015, 10:34
why is C incorrect? i thought had is used when another action occurs after the had.

surge in retail sales HAD raised hopes, and then economist think it might not last.
the surge occurred and then the economist thoughts proceeded. can someone please explain why this is incorrect
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2015, 10:32
btan219 wrote:
why is C incorrect? i thought had is used when another action occurs after the had.

surge in retail sales HAD raised hopes, and then economist think it might not last.
the surge occurred and then the economist thoughts proceeded. can someone please explain why this is incorrect

Dear btan219,

I'm happy to respond.

Here's the question again:
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.
(A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally
(B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally
(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally

First of all, use of "had" is a tense known as the past perfect. For more on the past perfect, see this blog:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verb ... ct-tenses/
The past perfect is used to show that one action occurred before another PAST event.
If event #1 is in the PAST, and event #2 happened before it, then we would use the past tense for #1 and the past perfect for #2
When I moved to California, I had already completed my master's degree.
If event #1 is in the PRESENT, and event #2 happened before it, then we do NOT need the past perfect. We would use the present tense for #1, and one option for #2 would be the simple past tense.
I am having a big lunch now because I didn't eat breakfast.

Notice that, in this sentence, the "later" event is in the present: " . . . many economists say . . ." That's a present tense verb, a present tense action. It is 100% wrong to use the past perfect for something preceding a present action. That's one reason (C) is wrong. We could use the simple past for the previous action, but the OA here makes an interesting choice --- the present perfect. I write about this curious verb tense in that same blog on the perfect tense. The present perfect indicates either an action that started in the past and still continues, or an action that was done in the past but is somehow still present (through its influence, effects, consequences, etc.) Here, the "surge in retail sales" began in the past, and may still be continuing. Even if it is not still happening, the hopes it raised are still raised, and economists are responding to these raised hopes. This is why use the present perfect is excellent in this sentence.

Choice (C) has some other problems. Compare (C) to the OA, (D):
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being under way . . .
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally under way . . .
Choice (C) is indirect and awkward. It lacks power because it is weak and floppy. By contrast, (D) is direct, clear, and powerful. It's a different in the feel of the sentence. In terms of what we might be willing to believe or accept, (D) is a winner, and (C) is a loser.

As a general pattern, "for" + [noun] + "being" is a relatively indirect and weak way to phrase something. There's almost always a stronger and clearer way to say the same thing.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2015, 00:42
had raised is wrong, because we don't have a past tense in the sentence and being is redundant.
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2015, 06:37
A surge in the retail sales has raised hopes. what is that hope? that recovery is finally under way but this has been challenged by economist. they say that it might not last if we don't spend large spending.
error in original sentence=> 1.subject is singular and verb is plural. 2 use of "there is " is unnecessary

A=> SVA error.
B=> past tense is incorrect.
C=> past tense is incorrect
D=> correct
E=> past tense is incorrect

other errors
E=>hopes for a recovery finally underway is incorrect. as per the grammar "for" is a preposition and must be followed by noun or noun phrase. but here it is followed by a clause. Please correct me if i m wrong.

PS: please explain the meaning of being in the options
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 22:14
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.
(A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally
(B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally
(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally
In this Sentence,You need to identify what has raised hopes ? is precess still happening ? Your answer will be 'yes'- raising of hope was started in past and still continue -->Present Perfect is not it , sure So Option D
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09 Apr 2016, 08:18
1
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.

(A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally--Subejct is singular but HAVE is plural verb so this is wrong; In GMAT try to avoid THERE IS kind of contruction unless necessary as they decrease the impact of the sentence by making it wordy and indirect. If the same can be expressed in more direct way then prefer it.
(B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally-- past tense is not required; there being is unclear and awkward
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being-- past perfect is not required as there is no simple past verb in the sentence; Hopes for a recovery is not the intention of the sentence--HOPE and RECOVERY are independent. so this is wrong
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally--ok
(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally--the sentence need a present tense so RAISED is wrong; again hopes for a recovery is incorrect
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 03:55
What is the difference between "for a recovery finally" vs "that a recovery finally"?
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 04:02
There is a split between "that a recovery is finally" vs "for a recovery is finally"

Please tell me the difference between them. And also do tell me the meaning of "that"
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 11:38
nandeta92 wrote:
There is a split between "that a recovery is finally" vs "for a recovery is finally"

Please tell me the difference between them. And also do tell me the meaning of "that"

In option D, "that" is used as a conjunction to join the following clauses:
1. a surge in retail sales have raised hopes
2. there is a recovery finally under way

The construction is similar to the following:
I said that you would do good.

As a conjunction " that" must introduce a clause.

"Hopes for X" is also correct, but then X is the object of preposition "for" - an object of preposition should always be a noun. C and E could be correct ("hopes for recovery"), unless the faulty modifier "finally being" were used to modify the noun " recovery" in option C or the verb issue were there in both options C and E.
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2017, 05:41
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.

The sentence starts with 'although' which shows that there will be a contrast in the sentence.
'Surge' is the subject and is singular. Therefore its verb must be singular i.e. has raised.

Option D corrects this error. Rest is fine.
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Re: Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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12 May 2017, 20:43
vikram4689 wrote:
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.
(A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally
(B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally
(C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being
(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally
(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally

My question is related to MEANING only. I eliminated B & E as these options use "raised" and as per meaning PRESENT PERFECT should be used as hopes were raised in past and economists are talking about present

A S/V agreement: "surge... have"
B "for there being" is awkward, unnecessary, and incorrect.
C Past perfect is unnecessary and wrong because there is no question of the order of actions (or any other previously concluded past event, for that matter).
D Correct. The "hopes" have continued to rise in the past.
E "Hopes for" is unidiomatic.
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Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2018, 02:42
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.

(D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally
Correct usage of present perfect and number agreement in singular with subject - a surge.
many economists say
- suggests the effect of event - a surge- is till present in current time frame

(E) raised hopes for a recovery finally
raised - a simple past tense, can not be used to denote an action whose effect is still present.
It is used to denote point of time event.
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04 Sep 2018, 19:12
Furthermore, it's an awkward construction. As a general rule, the construction the GMAT most likes with the word "hope" are
1) so-and-so hopes to do X (hope + infinitive)
2) so-and-so hopes that A does Y (hope plus substantive clause beginning with "that")
The GMAT frowns on
3) hope + participle
4) hope + (action with no verb at all)

The OA, (D), is of the form (hope + "that"-clause), a correct form, whereas (E) is of the form (verb + no-verb phrase), which is incorrect.

mikemcgarry
So does this mean that "Hope" is a command subjunctive and follows the rules of a bossy verb, meaning it can that it can take either the command subjunctive or infinitive(page 114 of mgmat SC book)?

Or does "Hope" have its own rules and we do not follow the same rules as we would with a bossy verb/command subjunctive?

When you say "Hope+that+clause" - is the bare form of the infinitive considered a working verb?

Also a little confused as to what clause means. I know it's a a subject + verb, but little confused on what "verb" consists of.
Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a &nbs [#permalink] 04 Sep 2018, 19:12

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