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Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation

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01 Jul 2007, 09:21
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A similar SC has been discussed. But posting again as the answer choices are little different

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.

(A) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B) the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C) according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D) the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 04:14
I suggest that bunching is avoided in posting, as we can see here only one of the several topics got attention from respondents
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 04:44
2. Discouraged by new data that show increases in toxic emissions from domestic factories, searches for alternative investment opportunities are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies.

searches for alternative investment opportunities are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading
manufacturing companies
searches are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies who are looking for alternative investment opportunities
shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies had begun searching for investment opportunities outside of the manufacturing industry
the nation’s leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities for its
shareholders
shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities
Ask the question who is discouraged by new data. Obviously not searches. It should be the shareholders. C and E remain. ‘Had begun’ is wrong tense for a sentence that is set in present tense. E survives

But considering that it involves just one concept, can it be 700 level?
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 04:48
3. Found in the wild only in Australia and New Guinea, powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from other large mammals.

• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from other large mammals
• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from other mammals that are large
• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from those of other mammals that are large
• kangaroos are distinguished from other large mammals by powerful legs with long feet
• kangaroos are being distinguished from other mammals that are large by powerful legs with

Ask the question what is found in Australia and NG. Obviously not the powerful legs but the Kangaroos. Therefore, after the participial phrase, the kangaroos must come. D and E survive. E is a muddle, forget it. D survives.

Better than second one, because this involves two concepts.
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 05:07
4. Hoping to alleviate some of the financial burdens of a growing population, property taxes last year were raised by an eleven percent increase by the county government.

Ask the question who hoped to alleviate the burdens. Obviously not the taxes themselves but the county govt. Therefore, the county government should come immediately after the population and comma.

• property taxes last year were raised by an eleven percent increase by the county government:--- misplaced modification
• property taxes were raised by eleven percent last year by the county government; ----misplaced modification
• the county government raised property taxes by an eleven percent increase last year ------ raised and increase are redundant
• the county government last year raised by eleven percent property taxes: ---The placement of the phrase last year immediately after the government implies
that there was some other government last year that raised the taxes and not the current government. This is distorted intent

• the county government raised property taxes by eleven percent last year: --- Perfect modification and correct word order . Correct choice

This is indeed a good question, involving modification reundnance and correct word order.
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 05:26
5. Used until the end of the Second World War, the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military or civilian watercraft.

Ask the question what was used until the end of the Second World War. Obviously not the German army but the U-boat. Therefore, the U-boat should come immediately after the introductory participial phrase. B, C, and E qualify. Now see the individual choices
• the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military and --- misplaced modification
• the U-boat was employed by the German army to attack both military and: correct choice.
• the U-boat employed the German army to attack both military or --- distorted meaning
• the German army had employed the U-Boat to attack both military and the ---misplaced modification
• the U-boat has been employed by the German army to attack both military and also: has been employed is wrong tense ; ‘both military and also’ is redundant

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 05:43
This is about the use of the limiting modifier, namely ‘only’ plus a few more additional themes

• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that --- No problem with the placement of only; but the use of the relative pronoun after a comma is wrong. That is restrictive and does not take a comma before it

• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that --- placemat of only before man implies that only man is good in a state of nature while all others re not so. Wrong menaing; that should not take a comma before it

• man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted only by society, that: implies that society is the only force that corrupts the man and nothing else can corrupt him. In addition, the comma before that is a problem.
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which; distorted menaing as in BH implying that all other organisms other than man are bad when in “the state of nature

• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which; Correct choice ; proper placement of the modifier only before when in “the state of nature”

Very good one
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2012, 04:33
i missed the first one. great questions and great explanation by egmat..kudos
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2012, 01:00
These are fantastic. 1 tricked me for a sec, 2 was pretty easy, 3 was way too easy for a 700 level question, and 4 was also very easy. I really don't think those last two qualify as 700 level questions.

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2012, 06:12
mohankumarbd wrote:
7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau contended that man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society,
that
compels man to compare himself to others.
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted only by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

The basic deal is to use restrictive vs non-restrictive clause----that vs which--------

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2012, 06:40
Great Question set.. thanks a lots
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08 Mar 2013, 14:06
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

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08 Mar 2013, 14:31
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Expert's post
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Mun23:

I'm happy to help with this. This is a classic Modifier Touch Rule question. The modifier "covered in about 11 inches of snow", needs to touch the thing that was covered in snow --- not the "officials", not the "runway conditions" --- the word following the modifier has to be "runway", because the runway, and only the runway, is covered in snow. This only happens in (D).

Does this make sense?

Mike
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12 Mar 2013, 03:47
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Mike,

In your previous post, you mentioned that a sentence for example "Although covered in about 11 inches of snow" cannot be correct. Instead, it should be written for example "Although road is covered in about 11 inches of snow". Could you please explain how we used this structure (without subject) in this example?

Thanks,

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12 Mar 2013, 05:19
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mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Only in D , the modifier is directly touching the noun. Hence D is the correct ans

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12 Mar 2013, 10:56
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hfiratozturk wrote:
Mike,
In your previous post, you mentioned that a sentence for example "Although covered in about 11 inches of snow" cannot be correct. Instead, it should be written for example "Although road is covered in about 11 inches of snow". Could you please explain how we used this structure (without subject) in this example?
Thanks,

Dear hfiratozturk,
First of all, understand that grammar is seldom as black & white as, say, mathematics. There are many more shades of grey.

I would say --- try not to worry about the parts of these practice sentences about which you don't get to choose. Sometimes, there will be less-than-perfect elements --- not out-and-out wrong, but simply less the perfect --- in the non-underlined part of the sentence. Wherever this particular structure appears in the underlined part of the sentence, at least in official material, it is always part of an incorrect answer; I believe this is a guideline you can follow. Remember that even a correct answer on a GMAT SC may not be ideal, only the best of the five answers. Remember, this is not math --- language is sloppy --- it's a living thing --- and the rules & guidelines of grammar & syntax abound in exceptions and shades of gray. If you are searching for axiomatic rules to follow dogmatically, you will be disappointed.

Does this make sense?

Mike
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12 Mar 2013, 11:59
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mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Mun23:

I'm happy to help with this. This is a classic Modifier Touch Rule question. The modifier "covered in about 11 inches of snow", needs to touch the thing that was covered in snow --- not the "officials", not the "runway conditions" --- the word following the modifier has to be "runway", because the runway, and only the runway, is covered in snow. This only happens in (D).

Does this make sense?

Mike

Hi Mike,

Is the wordy ("during the time of landing") vs concise("during the landing") qualify as a valid point for elimination of option C for someone who is stuck between C and D?

Thanks.

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12 Mar 2013, 13:32
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kapsycumm wrote:
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B) the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C) according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D) the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Hi Mike,
Is the wordy ("during the time of landing") vs concise("during the landing") qualify as a valid point for elimination of option C for someone who is stuck between C and D?
Thanks.

Dear kapsycumm,
I would say "during the time of landing" is a little wordy --- it certainly would make me suspicious of that answer, although its conceivable that this could be part of a less-than-ideal correct answer if all the others were flat-out wrong. It's not B/W grounds for omission all by itself.

By contrast, the modifier issue I discussed above is a slam-dunk for omitting wrong answers. I'd say the much bigger problem with (C) is the awkwardly placement of the phrase "according to aviation officials" ---- what was "according" to them?? Here's what (C) has

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, according to aviation officials, the runway was ...

In this sentence, it sounds like we need the expertise of aviation officials to tell us that there are 11 inches of snow on the runway --- as if that were not a totally obvious fact to any snow-removal worker who happened to go out there with a shovel. In the sentence overall, the thing the aviation officials are making clear is not the amount of snow on the runway, but rather the condition of the runway. By placing this modifier in the wrong place, (C) gives a mistaken impression of what the aviation officials were telling us. That's the BIG problem with (C).

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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03 Feb 2014, 00:28
Here is the official explanation

The correct answer is D. The opening modifier of the original sentence, "though it had about 11 inches of snow," incorrectly describes "the aviation officials" instead of "the runway." We need to find an answer choice in which "runway" is the subject of the opening modifier. Additionally, the original sentence contains a subject-verb error in that the plural "conditions" does not agree with the singular "was acceptable."

Choice A is incorrect because of the modifier and subject-verb agreement issues.

Choice B incorrectly changes the subject of the modifier to "runway conditions" instead of "runway." The runway, not the runway conditions, had 11 inches of snow.

Choice C incorrectly uses the redundant phrase "during the time" instead of "during." Further, the placement of "according to aviation officials" makes it unclear whether the officials stated that the runway "had about 11 inches of snow" or that the runway "was in acceptable condition."

Choice D is correct. The opening modifier correctly describes the runway, the sentence contains proper subject-verb agreement, and this choice does not introduce any new errors.

Choice E incorrectly uses "aviation officials" as the subject of the opening modifier, though it does correct the original subject-verb issue by replacing "was" with "were."
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10 Aug 2014, 10:43
egmat wrote:
hfbamafan wrote:
Question, I chose B mostly because I forgot to compare the proper construction in B, to E before I made my choice. My question is if runway was possessive would that make it correct?

Hi there,

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the
emergency landing was acceptable.

This sentence uses the verb-ed modifier "covered". So, what was covered? After reading the sentence we know that the runway was covered. Hence, the subject of the main clause should be runway so that the preceding verb-ed modifier "covered" can correctly modify it.

POE:

A. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "aviation officials" were covered in snow.

B. the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "runway conditions" were covered in snow. PS @hfbamafan - Even if it were "runway's conditions", this choice would be wrong because the modifier "covered" would still be modifying the incorrect entity "runway's condition" and not the runway. It was "runway" that was covered in snow and not the "runway's conditions". We need "runway" as the subject of the main clause.

C. according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing. Incorrect. " the runway" should be placed right in the beginning of the sentence to avoid any ambiguity.

D. the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials. CORRECT.

E. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "aviation officials" were covered in snow.

1. The modifiers and the entities that they modify should be placed such so that the sentence conveys the logical intended meaning.

Hope this helps.

Thanks.

Having 'according to aviation officials.' at the end (as option D has it) awkward.

Now since none of the options are perfect we have to choose lesser of the five evils and with that understanding if I look at option C

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing.

The bit in red is optional (as it is enclosed within commas, hence if the optional bit is ignored it makes perfect sense. Is it incorrect to ignore the optional bit?
It seems all right to me to take it out, especially in this scenario where all five options aren't perfect.
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08 Dec 2014, 16:17

[Modifier], according to xyz, Subject.... - violate the "touch-rule" therefore is not accepted in GMAT?

(The structure is as in the question).

Thanks.

mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Mun23:

I'm happy to help with this. This is a classic Modifier Touch Rule question. The modifier "covered in about 11 inches of snow", needs to touch the thing that was covered in snow --- not the "officials", not the "runway conditions" --- the word following the modifier has to be "runway", because the runway, and only the runway, is covered in snow. This only happens in (D).

Does this make sense?

Mike

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Re: Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation   [#permalink] 08 Dec 2014, 16:17

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