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# Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced

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Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 10:29
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Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer; thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.

Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

(A) The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery

(B) The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them

(C) The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

(D) The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements

(E) The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

[Reveal] Spoiler:

Disclaimer: for those of you who worry about the source I can surely admit that KAPLAN, ARCO and BARRONS are not it!!! And by the way, is there any explicit list about what sources not to post the questions from... I haven't seen it and I urge everyone just to answer the questions... I received a couple of PMs about this... saying the questions I posted were good.... and some of you are not really happy.... I am but I guess you can't please everyone!!! :wink:
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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08 Sep 2008, 09:19
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Nihit wrote:
Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.
Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

A. The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery

B. The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them

C. The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

D. The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements

E. The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

Please explain . Do the rest of clubbers use variance method for such questions? What is your approach to such questions ?

IMO C)

The custom replacement is twice costly and it will last longer. However if it last only 20% longer than patient will have to pay more cost.

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 04:02
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neetis5 wrote:
Hi Experts,
I had a tough time convincing myself that OA C is correct. My argument is since we are already given in passage that custom replacements should last longer it indirectly implies that there is relatively proportion by which repeat surgery are to be done for custom replacements than compared to ordinary replacements. Are not we supposed to bring new information (for evaluation of answer choices) in Evaluate Qs ?
Argument understanding:
Fact: Although CPBR cost 2x than ordinary replacement
Conclusion: CPBR are cost effective
Fact 2, supporting conclusion: CPBR shall be cost effective because surgery and recovery time will be less and CPBR needs less repeat surgery, which in turns lead to less utilization of hospital beds and causing smaller dent in patient's pockets.

Let me know if my understanding is correct.

You are right in your understanding that the correct answer to an evaluate question/consideration should bring in information that is not already given in the argument, because only then can it provide more clarity on the situation.

Now, as per this argument, we know that the author says:
1. CPBR = more than 2x of OR - I have underlined more because in your understanding, you seem to have missed it.
2. However, CPBR should still be more effective.
3. So, because the author deduces point 2, despite point 1, he goes on to give the reason.
4. Reason: 1. surgery and recovery time will go down + 2. CPBR should last longer --> reducing the need for further hospital stays.
5. Fundamentally, the author says that Reason 1 and 2 are areas in which there cost benefits will be realized for CPBR

Notice one thing, the author just says that that CPBR should last longer. To understand the implication of this word, consider an example.

Let's say your friend advises you to buy clothes from a particular store that sells the kind of clothes you like but at more than 2 times the price your usual store sells clothes at. Your friend says that despite this jump in price, the more expensive clothes will be worth it. The reason he cites is that the material used in the more expensive garments is of excellent quality and, therefore, you will need to buy new clothes less frequently than you have to right now.

What's the first thing that comes to your mind when someone makes such a pitch? If you take your friend's consideration on face value, you will be tempted to ask him - OK, but how much less frequently? Do you mean to say that the frequency will decrease by half? Or less than that?

Do you see the line of thought above?

Let me know if you need a little more push in the right direction. I shall do my best to clarify it further.

Cheers!

Hi Neetis5,
I understood your point shown beautifully by example. If my frequency of buying is more (not much less), it shall turn out eventually a costly affair in long run.
However coming back to main argument, the frequency of performing CPBR is known to be in less frequent time interval. Let me reiterate the statement:
custom replacements should last longer.
Since cost effectiveness and frequency are both mentioned in argument what new information did I get in option C?
WR, Arpit.

Hey Arpit,

Two things:
1. Slight correction wrt to your statement below:

Quote:
If my frequency of buying is more (not much less), it shall turn out eventually a costly affair in long run.

In my analysis, I asked you to take the friend's consideration on face value - so we need to accept that the frequency will be less. Therefore, the opposite situation, in which the frequency is more, does not come under consideration. However, what we are interested in finding out is how much less - i.e.the degree to which the frequency will be decreased since that is NOT given to us. So, let's take scenarios here:

A. The frequency decreases by more than half - you currently buy clothes every 2 months, but once you start buying the more expensive ones, you will need to buy them only after every 5 months. So, does this increase your belief in your friend's claim?

B. The frequency decreases marginally - you currently buy clothes every 2 months, but once you start buying the more expensive ones, you will need to buy them only after every 2.5 months. So, does your friend's claim about the expensiveness being worth it still stand as strongly as it did before we found out the degree aspect?

2. In the Official question as well, you are not told how much longer will the replacement last. Will the difference be substantial or not? If not substantial, then can author say authoritatively that the CPRB will be cost effective?

Hope you are able to see what new information the whole "degree" aspect brings along - given that we take it for granted that the replacements will indeed be less frequently.

Cheers!

Last edited by neetis5 on 16 Apr 2017, 06:41, edited 1 time in total.

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08 Sep 2008, 00:40
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Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.
Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

A. The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery

B. The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them

C. The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

D. The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements

E. The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

Please explain . Do the rest of clubbers use variance method for such questions? What is your approach to such questions ?

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 02:59
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Hi Experts,
I had a tough time convincing myself that OA C is correct. My argument is since we are already given in passage that custom replacements should last longer it indirectly implies that there is relatively proportion by which repeat surgery are to be done for custom replacements than compared to ordinary replacements. Are not we supposed to bring new information (for evaluation of answer choices) in Evaluate Qs ?
Argument understanding:
Fact: Although CPBR cost 2x than ordinary replacement
Conclusion: CPBR are cost effective
Fact 2, supporting conclusion: CPBR shall be cost effective because surgery and recovery time will be less and CPBR needs less repeat surgery, which in turns lead to less utilization of hospital beds and causing smaller dent in patient's pockets.

Let me know if my understanding is correct.

You are right in your understanding that the correct answer to an evaluate question/consideration should bring in information that is not already given in the argument, because only then can it provide more clarity on the situation.

Now, as per this argument, we know that the author says:
1. CPBR = more than 2x of OR - I have underlined more because in your understanding, you seem to have missed it.
2. However, CPBR should still be more effective.
3. So, because the author deduces point 2, despite point 1, he goes on to give the reason.
4. Reason: 1. surgery and recovery time will go down + 2. CPBR should last longer --> reducing the need for further hospital stays.
5. Fundamentally, the author says that Reason 1 and 2 are areas in which there cost benefits will be realized for CPBR

Notice one thing, the author just says that that CPBR should last longer. To understand the implication of this word, consider an example.

Let's say your friend advises you to buy clothes from a particular store that sells the kind of clothes you like but at more than 2 times the price your usual store sells clothes at. Your friend says that despite this jump in price, the more expensive clothes will be worth it. The reason he cites is that the material used in the more expensive garments is of excellent quality and, therefore, you will need to buy new clothes less frequently than you have to right now.

What's the first thing that comes to your mind when someone makes such a pitch? If you take your friend's consideration on face value, you will be tempted to ask him - OK, but how much less frequently? Do you mean to say that the frequency will decrease by half? Or less than that?

Do you see the line of thought above?

Let me know if you need a little more push in the right direction. I shall do my best to clarify it further.

Cheers!

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 10:55
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u2lover wrote:
Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer; thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.

Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

(A) The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery

(B) The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them

(C) The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

(D) The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements

(E) The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

Disclaimer: for those of you who worry about the source I can surely admit that KAPLAN, ARCO and BARRONS are not it!!! And by the way, is there any explicit list about what sources not to post the questions from... I haven't seen it and I urge everyone just to answer the questions... I received a couple of PMs about this... saying the questions I posted were good.... and some of you are not really happy.... I am but I guess you can't please everyone!!!

I'll go with C.

1. The amount of time spent on surgery and recovery is irrelevant, we need to focus on costs here.

2.The cost of producing these custom replacements might be down but that doesnt help us evaluate whether we will need to spend more on these replacements in the future.

3. Yes- this helps , only if this new replacement minimises or eliminates further surgery only then will it justify the investment, else you need to shell out more money. If this replacement requires surgery as frequently then the ordinary treatment holds good.

4. Manufacturing safety is not the issue here.

5. Production cost is irrelevant.

u2, chillax, just post whatever you have to, people are free to respond if they're interested.

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 17:20
(A) Wrong....the custom technique saves on both surgery and post surgery....no point in comparing one versus the other.

(B) There is no mention of long term production cost as an advantage..no point in finding that out.

(C) Yes....this could provide quantitative numbers for the adv mentioned.

(D) Not useful

(E) Not useful

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 18:12
A. focus needs to be long term...
B. out of scope
C. this creates the proper comparison between the custom and the ordinary method. Thought it may cost more at front, in the long run could potentially reduce cost as a whole.

E. out of scope...

hahaha u2: don't take it to heart...like you say, can't please everyone... keep um coming...

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 20:54
(C) The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

C & D are the possible choices. A, B, E are out of scope.

D falls off as it talks about "careful" manufacturing, which is not out of scope but is not required to analyse the given stem.

Therefore, C.

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Re: Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2006, 21:17
First of all ....... Let me clarify....... I made a comment on the source in my earlier post but in no way I want to discourage you to post any kind of question.
As I gather the purpose of the forum is to tickle your senses and fine tune them into GMAT.
Also I trully believe that practice makes a man/woman perfect hence throw anything you have got.....

For this question ..... will go with C.

The author clearly states that despite the high cost of custom replacements, these replacements will prove cost efficient in the long run as they will reduce the tie required to stay in the hospital.

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08 Sep 2008, 02:17
I'll go with C.

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08 Sep 2008, 04:45
shireeshgunda wrote:
I'll go with C.

why?

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08 Sep 2008, 06:02
I went to E.

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08 Sep 2008, 07:15

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08 Sep 2008, 16:14
Nihit wrote:
Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays.
Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?

A. The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery

B. The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them

C. The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements

D. The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements

E. The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale

Please explain . Do the rest of clubbers use variance method for such questions? What is your approach to such questions ?

IMO C
"custom replacements should still be cost-effective"
we need to know if the custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery, if not, it is not cost effective....
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08 Sep 2008, 16:31
IMO C.

If number of repeat surgery is increased , then it will be become costlier

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13 Sep 2008, 00:44
C.

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14 Sep 2011, 10:20
But doesn't the whole argument rest on the premise that these prosthetic bones are made very accurately? Therefore, if the bones were only half as accurate as they are claimed to be, the entire argument would stand null, right?
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14 Sep 2011, 11:13
Thanks for contacting me.

1) State the source. It is not a GMAT-like question.
2) The quality is poor. You have to assume smth to be correct in order to arrive to correct answer. Dont practice poor questions.

to the question itself.

conclusion: custom replacements should still be cost-effective , You must identify conclusion first.
what is asked? we need to strengthen the argument.
how would you do it without reading the answers? look, you need to support the statement that custom replacements should still be cost-effective. So we are basically reduced to cost comparisons (for customers), not time or volume etc. So let A and D out.

B and E are talking about production costs, which are not customers' costs. They are out as well.

We remained with C. Why C is bad? Because you must assume that:
2*"ordinary replacements"(=custom prosthetic bone replacements) minus ordinary replacements < cash for for repeat surgery . This may not be true,since nobody told you that it is lower.
This is why C is bad: it tells you that "The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce" without specifyin cost for surgery and degree of reduction for it.
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14 Sep 2011, 11:57
Pkit wrote:
Thanks for contacting me.

1) State the source. It is not a GMAT-like question.
2) The quality is poor. You have to assume smth to be correct in order to arrive to correct answer. Dont practice poor questions.

As a matter of fact, I found this baby in OG 12. Problem no. 108
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Re: prosthetic bone   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2011, 11:57

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