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# Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 02:30
tarek99 wrote:
ok i get it! the researchers' hypothesized that SV40 is the cause of mesotheliomas, a type of cancer. And because they found the virus in vaccines, this is why they claim that the vaccine must be the source. In option C, it is true that the vaccine is contaminated, therefore could be the cause, but this option does not isolate for us exactly whether it's the vaccine itself that is causing mesotheliomas or whether SV40 in the vaccine is causing mesotheliomas . remember, the researchers concluded that the vaccine must be the reason ONLY because they found traces of the SV40 in the contaminated vaccine, implying that the vaccine by itself is not the cause, but because of the SV40 that is found in the vaccine. In order to prove that that is the case, we need to find an answer choice with the same vaccine, only that this vaccine is not contaminated with SV40 in order to see whether it will still result in mesotheliomas . in option E, by showing that the same vaccine that is not contaminated with SV40 still doesn't produce mesotheliomas , it strengthens the researchers' hypothesis that it's the SV40 itself that is causing mesotheliomas, a type of cancer.

Option c says :

Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show the virus....

referring to the quoted bolded part : Over here virus means SV40 since in the passage it is stated ...sv40 is a virus... so Why is C still wrong then..
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 11:05
I marked C but now i know why i was wrong
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 12:06
E is the best one....
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2011, 11:08
The problem with arms reduction is that it is an illusory concept benefitting none. Even though designated stockpiles are being reduced, the weapons race continues, as the destructive power of new technologies and remaining arsenals is enhanced in order to maintain the pre-existing firepower. Thus, although it fosters an illusion of progress, arms reduction does nothing to curtail the proliferation of weaponry, and all must continue to live under the constant threat of annihilation.

Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's argument?

A) Arms reduction allows steady maintenance of the existing balance of power.

B) No arms limitation proposals have aimed at completely eliminating a nation's armament stockpile.

C) The five largest military powers have increased funding for new weapons in each of the last ten years.

D) The distinction between offensive and defensive weapon systems is often merely a matter of interpretation.

E) Arms limitation treaties have only accounted for the elimination of fiteen percent of the total firepower possessed by the five largest military powers.

anyone pls help in this !!!
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2011, 03:36
Good question answer should be E
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-------Analyze why option A in SC wrong-------

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2011, 08:16
E
d) just says that asbestos is not the cause but doesn't support that sv40 virus is.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2011, 20:58
micr0c0sm wrote:
Asbestos is primary cause for mesothelioma.
SV40 is a contributor as a percentage of tissue was found with the virus in mesothelioma cases.
Some polio vaccine was contaminated with SV40.
Hypothesis: Vaccine was source of virus found in mesothelioma.

What supports the hypothesis?
A - Unrelated
B - Unrelated
C - Reiterates/restates that some vaccine was indeed conaminated, but doesn't help prove the vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas.
D - Reiterates/restates that although asbestos is a primary cause, SV40 is a contributor.
E - US had contamination, and subsequently, SV40. Finland had no contamination, and we hypothesize, no SV40 as a result. This helps our overall hypothesis that the contaminated vaccine was the source of the virus. This is the correct answer.

yes, C and D are RESTATE EVIDENCE, a typical trap for strengthening questions. pls, search this forum for more on this point.

if argument say that a cause creates an effect, the following situation will be a strengtheners.

-no cause, no effect
-cause creates an effect in another case.

The best part of the book CRITICAL REASONING BIBLE is CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP chapter. read it.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 09:08
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

I also got trapped in C.
It's a tough question.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 14:30
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 21:50
E for me:

1) May be So what . OOS
2) Ok true. But OOS
3) may be showing: but does that leads to cancer?? dont know
4) Small %: support very little
5) Strongly suports by taking a case study of finland.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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26 May 2012, 06:39
D is correct answer. It proves that when vaccine was not contaminated , samples from mesothelioma doesn’t contains virus SV40.
It implies that when In absence of Cause, There is no Effect either. Hence It is also a way to support/strengthen the conclusion.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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26 May 2012, 10:38
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

If you're deciding between (C) and (E) - you'll have to understand which one MORE strengthens the argument.

(C) provides a statement that supports an existing assumption. It supports the fact that there was contamination in 1960. However, it doesn't affect the link between the assumption and the argument.

You can think of it as:
--Argument
--Assumption
--Statement (C)

Where (C) supports the assumption - but the link between assumption and argument is not really strengthened. If any, it is strengthened slightly by a small amount since the assumption is stronger/more valid.

With (E), this is GMATPill's A vs Not A Framework.
The passage is making the argument that contamination in 1960 leads to the "hypothesis" vaccine was the source of the virus in mesothelioma years later.
The framework tells us that if we can establish a relationship for the opposite state leading to the opposite conclusion, then that relationship is good enough to establish support for our original assumption->argument.
So here, that opposite relationship is established.

In Finland where polio vaccination was NOT contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do NOT contain SV40.

If this is the opposite relationship that is established, the original relationship must be:
Where polio vaccination WAS contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas DID contain SV40 - which is what the passage is saying.

So since the opposite relationship is established in (E), we know our assumption->argument is supported.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2012, 03:52
a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores. - Irrelevant information - Incorrect
b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. - We are talking about the vaccines that have been contaminated rather than the technique of manufacturing or the present scenario of the vaccine - Irrelevant information - Incorrect
c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. - It has already been mentioned in the premise that 1960 samples of vaccine have been contaminated by SV40 virus - Nither supports nor rejects - Incorrect
d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. - This takes a neutral stand and does not mention about SV40 virus in any case - Incorrect
e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. - Vaccine that was never contaminated with SV40 in Finland and it was found that mesotheliomas did not contain SV40. Hence it proves the hypothesis - Correct
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2012, 06:56
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Good Question Tarek.. Thanks a lots....
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2013, 02:08
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

E,
Eliminated C on the assumption that vaccine can be contaminated from monkey virus later than 1960.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2013, 06:10
I was torn between C and E. In the end I picked C because I thought it was reinforcing the argument.

However, after reading gmatnub' explanation, i see why E is the answer. Moreover, C seems to be re-instating the already given assumption that
"SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus" - Fact

C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus - already stated above

I think strengthener answers should add new information or another angle to the arguement

E)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2013, 18:09
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.
- who cares...

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
- now prevents, shows nth about previous contamination

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
- the question stem says " Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later. ". And the questions asks us to "support the researchers' hypothesis". This answer choice just fits

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
- A small percentage isn't representative

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
- uncontaminated vaccines does not contain SV40, doesnt support that contaminated ones DO contain SV40.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2013, 12:16
In the original question, the following are incorrect : caps, commas and full stop. I was misled and my answer is incorrect. Are caps, commas and full stop problems common? Or the question pasted here is incorrect?
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2013, 14:31
rajeshs wrote:
In the original question, the following are incorrect : caps, commas and full stop. I was misled and my answer is incorrect. Are caps, commas and full stop problems common? Or the question pasted here is incorrect?

Dear rajeshs,
I'm having a tremendous amount of difficulty understanding what you are asking. Please elaborate with quotes to demonstrate.
Mike
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2013, 05:22
Well guys I think the answer is C. Reason explained below

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

the whole game here is of conclusion = " Vaccine was the source of virus found in mesotheliomas decades later. "
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores. - Irrelevant

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. " this could be a good answer in case the conclusion were about contamination in cause effect scene
c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. - " Ask your self does it relate with the conclusion regardless of the degree of support it gives from 1%- 100%- Correct answer.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. no history of asbestos does not mean a history of Virus.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. --it is irrelevant as it does not help us to prove that the Vaccine of 1960 was the source of Virus.

I hope it will help
Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of   [#permalink] 01 Dec 2013, 05:22

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