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# Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of

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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2007, 06:28
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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mikemcgarry on 24 Sep 2015, 10:34, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2007, 11:23
I would go for E.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2007, 20:58
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Quite honestly, after reading the passage for the first time, I didn't know what the jack it meant

After re-reading with more focus, I sort of figure it out like this:

Researchers hypothesize that the cause of mesotheliomas, a slow- developing cancer, is SV40 virus, not the exposure to asbestos. Their reason is that SV40 is found in mesotheliomas cells and not found in healthy cells. Choice D says that in some small cases of mesotheliomas there was no exposure to asbestos. This proves that asbestos is not the only cause of the cancer, and in turn strengthens the conclusion that SV40 virus is the cause of the cancer in these cases.

a. is irrelevant
b. irrelevant
c. traces of the virus found shows that vaccines was comtaminated, but does not strengthen the conclusion that the SV40 virus causes cancer. vaccine here is general, not specific to polio. Thus can not apply.
e. This weakens the conclusion. This particular fact shows that where polio vaccine is absent of SV40 virus, mesotheliomas contains no SV40. Thus in this case, SV40 is not the cause of the cancer. This finding weakens the researchers' hypothesis.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2007, 21:39
tnguyen707 wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Quite honestly, after reading the passage for the first time, I didn't know what the jack it meant

After re-reading with more focus, I sort of figure it out like this:

Researchers hypothesize that the cause of mesotheliomas, a slow- developing cancer, is SV40 virus, not the exposure to asbestos. Their reason is that SV40 is found in mesotheliomas cells and not found in healthy cells. Choice D says that in some small cases of mesotheliomas there was no exposure to asbestos. This proves that asbestos is not the only cause of the cancer, and in turn strengthens the conclusion that SV40 virus is the cause of the cancer in these cases.

a. is irrelevant
b. irrelevant
c. traces of the virus found shows that vaccines was comtaminated, but does not strengthen the conclusion that the SV40 virus causes cancer. vaccine here is general, not specific to polio. Thus can not apply.
e. This weakens the conclusion. This particular fact shows that where polio vaccine is absent of SV40 virus, mesotheliomas contains no SV40. Thus in this case, SV40 is not the cause of the cancer. This finding weakens the researchers' hypothesis.

I would go for E.
The hypothesis says that the vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.
E strengthens it by illustrating a case where the polio vaccine was not contaminated and mesotheliomas samples did not contain the virus.
D doesn't seem to have a relationship with the hypothesis.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 00:47
but guys, what makes E better than C? in C, if the vaccine already shows traces of the virus (and when they mention virus, they are talking about SV40, no?), isn't that good enough? if i understood this text correctly, the reserchers hypothesized that the vaccine was the source of the spread of the virus, so if we can pick an answer choice that shows that the vacines do contain such virus, doesn't that accomplish the task? in option E, that would strengthen the point that the vaccine is not the cause.....hmm....can somebody explain why E is better than C?
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 01:09
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tarek99 wrote:
but guys, what makes E better than C? in C, if the vaccine already shows traces of the virus (and when they mention virus, they are talking about SV40, no?), isn't that good enough? if i understood this text correctly, the reserchers hypothesized that the vaccine was the source of the spread of the virus, so if we can pick an answer choice that shows that the vacines do contain such virus, doesn't that accomplish the task? in option E, that would strengthen the point that the vaccine is not the cause.....hmm....can somebody explain why E is better than C?

C supports the idea that "polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus" (even though, it is not asked to support this statement) but it does bot support the hypothesis that this vaccine was the source.

though, i don't like E, it's the best choice among all
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 03:12
OA is E, but i really don't see why E is better than C. need some help on this one
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 03:26
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ok i get it! the researchers' hypothesized that SV40 is the cause of mesotheliomas, a type of cancer. And because they found the virus in vaccines, this is why they claim that the vaccine must be the source. In option C, it is true that the vaccine is contaminated, therefore could be the cause, but this option does not isolate for us exactly whether it's the vaccine itself that is causing mesotheliomas or whether SV40 in the vaccine is causing mesotheliomas . remember, the researchers concluded that the vaccine must be the reason ONLY because they found traces of the SV40 in the contaminated vaccine, implying that the vaccine by itself is not the cause, but because of the SV40 that is found in the vaccine. In order to prove that that is the case, we need to find an answer choice with the same vaccine, only that this vaccine is not contaminated with SV40 in order to see whether it will still result in mesotheliomas . in option E, by showing that the same vaccine that is not contaminated with SV40 still doesn't produce mesotheliomas , it strengthens the researchers' hypothesis that it's the SV40 itself that is causing mesotheliomas, a type of cancer.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 08:19
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

What's the source? Thanks.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2007, 08:44
The source is Gmatprep
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2007, 02:36
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After taking ample time on this question, I have got the option E.

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
The bolded part is already saying about contamination so, C will not be the strongest point.
d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
E amplifies the certainty of choice. E also supports the posibility where polio vaccine has never contaminated.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2007, 18:05
i would go for E
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2007, 18:20
I will go for E.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2007, 14:15
Hi guys, the OA is E.

I had C for the answer, but clearly, the passage designed to misdirect the reader with "cause" vs "source".

The whole passage concentrated on the "cause" of cancer, but the last sentence mentioned "source". I think many people assumed that the question is asking for the cause. Clearly a sneaky way of asking a question. In the real world, this would be a "gotcha" question being posed by smart alecs, not to be taken seriously.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 01:30
tarek99 wrote:
ok i get it! the researchers' hypothesized that SV40 is the cause of mesotheliomas, a type of cancer. And because they found the virus in vaccines, this is why they claim that the vaccine must be the source. In option C, it is true that the vaccine is contaminated, therefore could be the cause, but this option does not isolate for us exactly whether it's the vaccine itself that is causing mesotheliomas or whether SV40 in the vaccine is causing mesotheliomas . remember, the researchers concluded that the vaccine must be the reason ONLY because they found traces of the SV40 in the contaminated vaccine, implying that the vaccine by itself is not the cause, but because of the SV40 that is found in the vaccine. In order to prove that that is the case, we need to find an answer choice with the same vaccine, only that this vaccine is not contaminated with SV40 in order to see whether it will still result in mesotheliomas . in option E, by showing that the same vaccine that is not contaminated with SV40 still doesn't produce mesotheliomas , it strengthens the researchers' hypothesis that it's the SV40 itself that is causing mesotheliomas, a type of cancer.

Option c says :

Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show the virus....

referring to the quoted bolded part : Over here virus means SV40 since in the passage it is stated ...sv40 is a virus... so Why is C still wrong then..
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 04:09
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good question. picked E. It strengthens researchers argument by cancelling alternative explanations
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 10:05
I marked C but now i know why i was wrong
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2011, 11:06
E is the best one....
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2011, 20:41
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Asbestos is primary cause for mesothelioma.
SV40 is a contributor as a percentage of tissue was found with the virus in mesothelioma cases.
Some polio vaccine was contaminated with SV40.
Hypothesis: Vaccine was source of virus found in mesothelioma.

What supports the hypothesis?
A - Unrelated
B - Unrelated
C - Reiterates/restates that some vaccine was indeed conaminated, but doesn't help prove the vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas.
D - Reiterates/restates that although asbestos is a primary cause, SV40 is a contributor.
E - US had contamination, and subsequently, SV40. Finland had no contamination, and we hypothesize, no SV40 as a result. This helps our overall hypothesis that the contaminated vaccine was the source of the virus. This is the correct answer.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2011, 10:08
The problem with arms reduction is that it is an illusory concept benefitting none. Even though designated stockpiles are being reduced, the weapons race continues, as the destructive power of new technologies and remaining arsenals is enhanced in order to maintain the pre-existing firepower. Thus, although it fosters an illusion of progress, arms reduction does nothing to curtail the proliferation of weaponry, and all must continue to live under the constant threat of annihilation.

Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's argument?

A) Arms reduction allows steady maintenance of the existing balance of power.

B) No arms limitation proposals have aimed at completely eliminating a nation's armament stockpile.

C) The five largest military powers have increased funding for new weapons in each of the last ten years.

D) The distinction between offensive and defensive weapon systems is often merely a matter of interpretation.

E) Arms limitation treaties have only accounted for the elimination of fiteen percent of the total firepower possessed by the five largest military powers.

anyone pls help in this !!!
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2011, 10:08

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