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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2016, 12:21
iamseer wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?


Category – Strengthen (Cause & Effect)

Premise-1: Primary cause for mesothelioma is asbestos BUT SV40 virus ALSO contributes.

Premise-2: In 1960, vaccine was contaminated with SV40.

Conclusion: Vaccine (cause) => virus in mesotheliomas (effect)

Correct choice can be in any of the follwoing forms:
#1. A choice that says there is no other cause for the above effect. OR
#2. A choice that says there is no other effect for the above cause.
#3. A choice that says there is no cause for the above cause.
#4. A choice that says if no cause then no effect.

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
If a cancer laboratory uses SV40 then we are not sure about the connection of this usage with vaccine having SV40.

B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
Weakner. It says vaccine cannot have SV40, so what researchers are saying is wrong. Had the question asked for weakner this would have been the correct choice.

C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
This is rephrase of the premise “1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus”. We need a new evidence to support the conclusion. So what already is stated cannot be the answer here becauseThis is not an “coclusion” or “inference” question.

D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
argument says that asbestos is primary cause but SV40 virus also contributes. But does this any says that vaccine causes mesotheliomas? No!

E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
This is parallel to “if no cause then no effect.”. - CORRECT
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2016, 05:44
The answer is an easy E once you know the rule of the game.
This is a particularly good question that underlies the importance of understanding the rules for CR.

This is a strengthen the conclusion question:-
Now imagine this conversation
You:-Hey Bob, .. I think superman is the most powerful hero
Bob :- Why do u think so ?
You:- Because Superman can fly, stop bullet, reach the sun and breathe underwater.
Bob:- I am still not convinced. Tell me one more thing that superman can do.

Now think what your answer would be :-
Superman once touched an elephant and the elephant fell 5000 feet away.
OR
Superman can fly very fast and very high.

Now Bob has asked you to strengthen your conclusion about superman. He is not convinced with the four reasons that you already told him. He needs one more reason to believe your conclusion. So you must present a NEW REASON to make your conclusion stronger. You cannot state the same reason that you have already presented to him before.


THIS IS WHAT OPTION E IS DOING.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
Option E apart from all the old information, already present in the stimulus, is giving another information that is making our conclusion stronger

OPTION C is wrong because it is repeating what is already said in the stimulus
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

But we already know that .. don't we ?? the question stem contains this info explicitly :-"in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus."

SO we need a new proof to make our conclusion stronger.







Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

A) SV40 is widely used as a research toll in cancer laboratories.
B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40
C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2016, 14:20
C is wrong because we don't need to strengthen that SV40 was found in the polio vaccine. We need to strengthen that the virus in the vaccine was a contributing CAUSE. Choice E is correct because in other words it says that where there was no cause, there was no effect.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 03:49
gaurav0480 wrote:
To me both C and E looked good answers but I eliminated E on the argument that not all samples of mesotheliomas have SV40. The argument says only 60% of samples have SV40. Therefore, the samples collected in Finland could be from the remaining 40%.


You are assuming too much as you can't say about the vaccines used in finland and in the other location.

We got only to ways to support the conclusion (Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later):

1. The vaccine was really infected . It has been stated in C but it was found in such condition we can not conculde it was infected already or later due to environment.

2. Where vaccine was not infected no traces of Virus in samples . Option E provides the similar scenario , hence winner.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 02:30
sassy10 wrote:
Dear GMAT club members. The following question is from the official GMAT prep course:

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause for mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researchers believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing case, since in the US 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers’ hypothesis?

A. SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.
B. Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
C. Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
D. In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
E. In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Now option E states...."In Finland"..... I cant remember exactly where I have read it, but I always thought if there is an answer choice that is a fragment of the whole population it is generally considered incorrect. What I cant remember is where this theory hold.

My logic tells me that the fragmentation answer choice is generally incorrect in "assumption" questions where the answer needs to provide ESSENTIAL information for the conclusion to be true. In "strenghten" questions, the answer choice should provide ADDITIONAL information for the conclusion to be held true and hence fragmentation can be appropriate.

Could someone please confirm that my thinking is correct?

Many thanks


refer to powerscore CR's Causal passage framework for support question :
If a cause leads to an effect than a probable "supporting" argument / answer can be :
No cause no effect ...
Which is very similar to what E says ...
Hence E ...
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2017, 17:39
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E is correct answer because it says: vaccine was never contaminated but in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus
Researchers hypothesise that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2017, 09:15
Merged duplicate topics. Please, search question before creating discussion.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2017, 02:57
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

POE is the best bet for this type of questions

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.
This option can be inferred and it doesn't add anything to the conclusion Wrong

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
Author implies the evidence that contamination of Polio could trace the origin of SV40. This option choice deals with the methodology to avoid contamination. Irrelevant

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
This is given in the passage. Wrong

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
Given mesothelioma --> asbestos
Option Small % mesothelioma doesnot --> asbestos
This doesnt tell anything about the origin Wrong

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
This is the correct answer.
Since the author backs the evidence of contamination to the origin. This option strengthens the author's beliefs that if no contamination no virus
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 07:00
C repeats the argument.
E is the answer because E shows a strong relation between vaccine contaminated and S40 in patients.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2017, 17:21
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseachers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.

(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.


Causality and Strengthen Questions

Because Strengthen and Weaken questions require you to perform opposite tasks, to strengthen a causal conclusion you take the exact opposite approach that you would in a Weaken question.

In Strengthen questions, supporting a cause and effect relationship almost always consists of performing one of the following tasks:

A. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect

Because the author believes there is only one cause (the stated cause in the argument), eliminating other possible causes strengthens the conclusion.

B. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs

Because the author believes that the cause always produces the effect, any scenario where the cause occurs and the effect follows lends credibility to the conclusion. This type of answer can appear in the form of an example.

C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur

Using the reasoning in the previous point, any scenario where the cause does not occur and the effect does not occur supports the conclusion. This type of answer also can appear in the form of an example.

D. Eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed

Because the author believes that the cause and effect relationship is correctly stated, eliminating the possibility that the relationship is backwards (the claimed effect is actually the cause of the claimed cause) strengthens the conclusion.

E. Show that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data

If the data used to make a causal statement are in error, then the validity of the causal claim is in question. Any information that eliminates error or reduces the possibility of error will support the argument.


Premise : SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus.
Conclusion : Reseachers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Cause → Effect

SV40 → polio vaccine contaminated with mesotheliomas

Quote:
C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur

Using the reasoning in the previous point, any scenario where the cause does not occur and the effect does not occur supports the conclusion. This type of answer also can appear in the form of an example.


Answer : (E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas DO NOT contain SV40.
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Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2017, 07:26
mikemcgarry wrote:
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?
(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.
(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

fameatop wrote:
I am not able to understand why option C is incorrect & E is correct. Can you kindly throw some light on the same. Waiting eagerly for your detailed explanation. Regards, Fame

Fame,
So, the argument presents, as evidence, the fact that "in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus." That's evidence, so for GMAT purposes, that's fact beyond dispute. Then it makes the argument, the hypothesis, that SV40 in the vaccine CAUSED the SV40 in the mesotheliomas. That's the actual argument we are trying to support, the link between the SV40 in the vaccine and the SV40 in the mesothelioma tissue.

Well, (C) merely strengthens the evidence. We already were told that there was SV40 virus in the polio vaccine. That's already beyond doubt. Statement (C) strengthens this statement that is already beyond doubt, but it doesn't say squat about the link to mesothelioma. The researchers were hypothesizing this link between SV40 virus in the vaccines and mesothelioma, and (C), while it verifies --- "yep, there sure was SV40 in that polio vaccine!" --- doesn't bring us any closer to a link with with mesothelioma. The argument is all about that link.

By contrast, (E) is very powerful. If the SV40 virus in the vaccines really is the source of the virus in the mesothelioma tissue, then if we found some case in which there was no SV40 virus in the vaccine, then we would expect to find no SV40 virus in the mesothelioma tissue. (E) provides this new and very cogent evidence. This is new, different from what was stated in the passage, although it provides strong support to the passage. In general, if I make the argument that P and only P causes Q, then part of what I am predicting is --- if there's no P, then there should be no Q. That would be very powerful evidence for this claim, and this is precisely the nature of the powerful evidence that (E) provides. That's why it's the best answer.

Does this make sense?

Mike :-)



dear mikemcgarry
so we don't want to prove or support that SV40 is the only reason of cancer, we want to trace the existence of sv40 in mesothelioma when they exist in a vaccine ( I mean we want to support that just vaccine with sv40 lead to mesothelioma with sv40). we don't care about the cause of cancer
because option E talk about a sample of mesothelioma which didn't use the vaccine, so there are others factor for this disease

am I right?

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