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# Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi

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Senior Manager
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Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2008, 17:49
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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review,2nd Edition, 2009

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 12 ~ 17
Page: 26

Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change. In analyzing the latter, scientists have discovered the importance of social and ecological factors to epidemics. Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis. Previously, infection had occurred during infancy, when it typically provided lifelong immunity without paralysis. Thus, the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic. Another example is Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria that are transmitted by deer ticks. It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer's habitat. Similarly, an outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950's because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate. The stage is now set in the United States for a dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?

A An outbreak of Lyme disease
B An outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever
C An epidemic of typhoid
D An epidemic of paralytic polio among infants
E An epidemic of paralytic polio among adolescents and adults

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's occurred for which of the following reasons?

A The mosquito Aedes aegypti was newly introduced into Asia.
B The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more numerous.
C The mosquito Aedes albopictus became infected with the dengue virus.
D Individuals who would normally acquire immunity to the dengue virus as infants were not infected until later in life.
E More people began to visit and inhabit areas in which mosquitos live and breed.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?

A The inadvertent introduction of Lyme disease bacteria to the United States
B The inability of modern sanitation methods to eradicate Lyme disease bacteria
C A genetic mutation in Lyme disease bacteria that makes them more virulent
D The spread of Lyme disease bacteria from infected humans to noninfected humans
E An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the basis of information given in the passage?

A It is native to the United States.
B It can proliferate only in Asia.
C It transmits the dengue virus.
D It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's.
E It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological changes altered Aedes aegypti's habitat.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D

5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved.
B Two opposing explanations are presented, argued, and reconciled.
C A theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three experiments that support the theory.
D A generalization is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generalization.
E An argument is described and is then followed by three counterexamples that refute the argument.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's assertion about the cause of the Lyme disease outbreak in the United States?

A The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.
B Interest in outdoor recreation began to grow in the late nineteenth century.
C In recent years the suburbs have stopped growing.
D Outdoor recreation enthusiasts routinely take measures to protect themselves against Lyme disease.
E Scientists have not yet developed a vaccine that can prevent Lyme disease.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 12 Jul 2017, 19:00, edited 6 times in total.
Formatting for verbal review project

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2008, 19:48
i have:

1 - D
2 - B
3 - E
4 - C
5 - C
6 - B .... its either this or A, and i had a tough time choosing.

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2008, 12:51
E
B
E
C
D
A

What are the OAs?

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2008, 13:21
C
B
E
C
D
A

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2008, 21:16
D
B
D
C
D
A

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2008, 00:40
E
B
E
C
D
A

Whats the OA ?

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2008, 15:38
OA:

C,B,E,C,D,A
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2013, 23:08
4
KUDOS
1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?

"Thus, the HYGIENE that helped PREVENT TYPHOID epidemics
indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic
" - Remove HYGIENE then we get the reverse of PREVENTING TYPHOID

ANSWER: (C) An epidemic of typhoid

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's occurred for which of the following reasons?

"an outbreak of dengue hemor-
rhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950's
because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti,
(25) the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate
" - PROLIFERATE / INCREASE in NUMBER

ANSWER: (B) The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more numerous.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?

"increased outdoor recreational activities in the
deer's habitat" - MORE EXPOSURE TO DEER

ANSWER: (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the basis of information given in the passage?

"The stage is now set in the United States for a
dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction
and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes
albopictus
" - newly introduced... hence, not native to the US...

A It is native to the United States. They are newly introduced. Hence, out!
B It can proliferate only in Asia. They can cause epidemics in US. Hence, out!
ANSWER: (C) It transmits the dengue virus.
D It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's. This is another breed of mosquito
E It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological changes altered Aedes aegypti's habitat. not mentioned

5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved. Contrasting views mentioned initially but the discussion did not revolve around that...
B Two opposing explanations are presented, argued, and reconciled.Two views introduced but the discussion did not revolve around that

C A theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three experiments that support the theory. no such experiments mentioned

ANSWER: (D) A generalization is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generalization.

E An argument is described and is then followed by three counterexamples that refute the argument. the examples are not use as counterexamples but just examples of epidemics without genetic evolution

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's assertion about the cause of the Lyme disease outbreak in the United States?

ANSWER: (A) The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.
If the deer population was just same as population to day, then the increase in population will be an invalid explanation for the Lyme disease. This eliminate that possibility.
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2013, 15:33
1
KUDOS
mbaiseasy wrote:
1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?

"Thus, the HYGIENE that helped PREVENT TYPHOID epidemics
indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic
" - Remove HYGIENE then we get the reverse of PREVENTING TYPHOID

ANSWER: (C) An epidemic of typhoid

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's occurred for which of the following reasons?

"an outbreak of dengue hemor-
rhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950's
because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti,
(25) the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate
" - PROLIFERATE / INCREASE in NUMBER

ANSWER: (B) The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more numerous.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?

"increased outdoor recreational activities in the
deer's habitat" - MORE EXPOSURE TO DEER

ANSWER: (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the basis of information given in the passage?

"The stage is now set in the United States for a
dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction
and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes
albopictus
" - newly introduced... hence, not native to the US...

A It is native to the United States. They are newly introduced. Hence, out!
B It can proliferate only in Asia. They can cause epidemics in US. Hence, out!
ANSWER: (C) It transmits the dengue virus.
D It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's. This is another breed of mosquito
E It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological changes altered Aedes aegypti's habitat. not mentioned

5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved. Contrasting views mentioned initially but the discussion did not revolve around that...
B Two opposing explanations are presented, argued, and reconciled.Two views introduced but the discussion did not revolve around that

C A theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three experiments that support the theory. no such experiments mentioned

ANSWER: (D) A generalization is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generalization.

E An argument is described and is then followed by three counterexamples that refute the argument. the examples are not use as counterexamples but just examples of epidemics without genetic evolution

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's assertion about the cause of the Lyme disease outbreak in the United States?

ANSWER: (A) The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.
If the deer population was just same as population to day, then the increase in population will be an invalid explanation for the Lyme disease. This eliminate that possibility.

i'm confused about question number 6 - the passage already states that the deer population was smaller in the past. choice a is merely re-stating this fact. strengthening should bring something out of scope into the picture. would love if anyone can explain here. thanks!

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2013, 21:41
mokura wrote:
mbaiseasy wrote:
1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?

"Thus, the HYGIENE that helped PREVENT TYPHOID epidemics
indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic
" - Remove HYGIENE then we get the reverse of PREVENTING TYPHOID

ANSWER: (C) An epidemic of typhoid

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's occurred for which of the following reasons?

"an outbreak of dengue hemor-
rhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950's
because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti,
(25) the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate
" - PROLIFERATE / INCREASE in NUMBER

ANSWER: (B) The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more numerous.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?

"increased outdoor recreational activities in the
deer's habitat" - MORE EXPOSURE TO DEER

ANSWER: (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the basis of information given in the passage?

"The stage is now set in the United States for a
dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction
and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes
albopictus
" - newly introduced... hence, not native to the US...

A It is native to the United States. They are newly introduced. Hence, out!
B It can proliferate only in Asia. They can cause epidemics in US. Hence, out!
ANSWER: (C) It transmits the dengue virus.
D It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's. This is another breed of mosquito
E It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological changes altered Aedes aegypti's habitat. not mentioned

5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved. Contrasting views mentioned initially but the discussion did not revolve around that...
B Two opposing explanations are presented, argued, and reconciled.Two views introduced but the discussion did not revolve around that

C A theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three experiments that support the theory. no such experiments mentioned

ANSWER: (D) A generalization is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generalization.

E An argument is described and is then followed by three counterexamples that refute the argument. the examples are not use as counterexamples but just examples of epidemics without genetic evolution

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's assertion about the cause of the Lyme disease outbreak in the United States?

ANSWER: (A) The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.
If the deer population was just same as population to day, then the increase in population will be an invalid explanation for the Lyme disease. This eliminate that possibility.

i'm confused about question number 6 - the passage already states that the deer population was smaller in the past. choice a is merely re-stating this fact. strengthening should bring something out of scope into the picture. would love if anyone can explain here. thanks!

OE #1: Lines 14–15 show that typhoid epidemics were prevented by modern sanitation; therefore, typhoid might breakout in the absence of modern sanitation.

OE #2 : The lines 24–28 mention outbreak became an epidemic in Asia because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate

OE #3: To make an inference about Lyme disease, examine the discussion of Lyme disease in lines 16–24. As the deer population grows and as humans encroach on the deer habitat, more people encounter deer ticks and become infected with the disease.

OE #4 : An inference is drawn from stated information rather than explicitly stated. Aedes albopictus is mentioned in the final sentence of the passage, which says that this mosquito was inadvertently introduced into the United States and has spread widely. Author states that the stage is now set in the United States for a dengue epidemic. It is reasonable to infer that this mosquito can transmit the dengue virus.

OE #5 : Analyze the structure of the passage in order to answer a question about how the passage is organized. Three specific examples—Polio, Lyme disease, and Dengue hemorrhagic fever—are used to support a general statement

OE#6 : The author blames the recent prevalence of Lyme disease on the rise in the deer population and the growth of the suburbs, with people spending more time outside in the deer’s habitat.
For question number 6--If you read the lines 15-12 and the OE " The author blames the recent prevalence of Lyme disease on the rise in the deer population and the growth of the suburbs, with people spending more time outside in the deer’s habitat." you will find that option A -[The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century] will strengthen the authors assertion
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2014, 08:38
dentobizz wrote:
OE #1: Lines 14–15 show that typh....

OE #5 : Analyze the structure of the passage in order to answer a question about how the passage is organized. Three specific examples—Polio, Lyme disease, and Dengue hemorrhagic fever—are used to support a general statement

....will strengthen the authors assertion

I can understand that option D is correct because it states "three instances" and that option C incorrectly states "three experiments" but I'm finding it difficult to understand what is meant by generalization.
According to my understanding, generalization may or may not be true and is drawn by various statements. Whereas, the passage states that scientists have discovered the importance of..
I concluded that since scientist has discovered the reason, the word theory suits better than generalization (both are not the correct words imo)

Although, I see that experiments and instances completely clears the ambiguity of the right answer, is the usage of word generalization preferred more than theory?

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2014, 11:23
Need some help with Q 1....
I can understand why C is correct, but D is also correct.
The hygiene postponed the appearance of polio from babies to adults...
So if there was no hygiene, it would attack babies again....
Anyone?

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2014, 16:12
ronr34 wrote:
Need some help with Q 1....
I can understand why C is correct, but D is also correct.
The hygiene postponed the appearance of polio from babies to adults...
So if there was no hygiene, it would attack babies again....
Anyone?

+1 same doubt

anyone? D looks equally correct.
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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27 May 2015, 01:48
7 mins all correct. sub 600 level i feel
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2015, 09:22
1c,2b,3E,4C,5D,6B
One incorrect .total time :4 minutes 43 seconds
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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2015, 10:46
rohitmanglik wrote:
ronr34 wrote:
Need some help with Q 1....
I can understand why C is correct, but D is also correct.
The hygiene postponed the appearance of polio from babies to adults...
So if there was no hygiene, it would attack babies again....
Anyone?

+1 same doubt

anyone? D looks equally correct.

Even I have the same doubt !! Could anyone clarify on this?

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2016, 07:54
dentobizz wrote:
mokura wrote:
mbaiseasy wrote:
1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?

"Thus, the HYGIENE that helped PREVENT TYPHOID epidemics
indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic
" - Remove HYGIENE then we get the reverse of PREVENTING TYPHOID

ANSWER: (C) An epidemic of typhoid

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's occurred for which of the following reasons?

"an outbreak of dengue hemor-
rhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950's
because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti,
(25) the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate
" - PROLIFERATE / INCREASE in NUMBER

ANSWER: (B) The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more numerous.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?

"increased outdoor recreational activities in the
deer's habitat" - MORE EXPOSURE TO DEER

ANSWER: (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the basis of information given in the passage?

"The stage is now set in the United States for a
dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction
and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes
albopictus
" - newly introduced... hence, not native to the US...

A It is native to the United States. They are newly introduced. Hence, out!
B It can proliferate only in Asia. They can cause epidemics in US. Hence, out!
ANSWER: (C) It transmits the dengue virus.
D It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 1950's. This is another breed of mosquito
E It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological changes altered Aedes aegypti's habitat. not mentioned

5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved. Contrasting views mentioned initially but the discussion did not revolve around that...
B Two opposing explanations are presented, argued, and reconciled.Two views introduced but the discussion did not revolve around that

C A theory is proposed and is then followed by descriptions of three experiments that support the theory. no such experiments mentioned

ANSWER: (D) A generalization is stated and is then followed by three instances that support the generalization.

E An argument is described and is then followed by three counterexamples that refute the argument. the examples are not use as counterexamples but just examples of epidemics without genetic evolution

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author's assertion about the cause of the Lyme disease outbreak in the United States?

ANSWER: (A) The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.
If the deer population was just same as population to day, then the increase in population will be an invalid explanation for the Lyme disease. This eliminate that possibility.

i'm confused about question number 6 - the passage already states that the deer population was smaller in the past. choice a is merely re-stating this fact. strengthening should bring something out of scope into the picture. would love if anyone can explain here. thanks!

OE #1: Lines 14–15 show that typhoid epidemics were prevented by modern sanitation; therefore, typhoid might breakout in the absence of modern sanitation.

OE #2 : The lines 24–28 mention outbreak became an epidemic in Asia because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate

OE #3: To make an inference about Lyme disease, examine the discussion of Lyme disease in lines 16–24. As the deer population grows and as humans encroach on the deer habitat, more people encounter deer ticks and become infected with the disease.

OE #4 : An inference is drawn from stated information rather than explicitly stated. Aedes albopictus is mentioned in the final sentence of the passage, which says that this mosquito was inadvertently introduced into the United States and has spread widely. Author states that the stage is now set in the United States for a dengue epidemic. It is reasonable to infer that this mosquito can transmit the dengue virus.

OE #5 : Analyze the structure of the passage in order to answer a question about how the passage is organized. Three specific examples—Polio, Lyme disease, and Dengue hemorrhagic fever—are used to support a general statement

OE#6 : The author blames the recent prevalence of Lyme disease on the rise in the deer population and the growth of the suburbs, with people spending more time outside in the deer’s habitat.
For question number 6--If you read the lines 15-12 and the OE " The author blames the recent prevalence of Lyme disease on the rise in the deer population and the growth of the suburbs, with people spending more time outside in the deer’s habitat." you will find that option A -[The deer population was smaller in the late nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century] will strengthen the authors assertion

If option A strengthens the author's assertion then so does the option B. Because author also stated that because of more people spending time outside in the deer's habitat Lyme disease rose at that time. That means peoples' interest in outdoor recreational activities also led to spreading of the Lyme disease.

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Re: Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi   [#permalink] 24 Jul 2016, 07:54
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# Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemi

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