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Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores o

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Intern
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Re: Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores o  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2019, 06:41
The first answer is doubtful. although I could be wrong of course.
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Re: Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores o  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2019, 06:42
Friends, is the first answer exactly the right one, because I have doubts about this.
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Re: Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores o  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2019, 22:13
generis wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 191: Sentence Correction (SC2)

[/b]


• HIGHLIGHTS

This question tests gerund usage (verbING words), subordinate conjunctions, modifiers, and shifting verb tenses within a sentence

Meaning?
The common grape vine naturally ranges from X to Y, but the vine, highly adaptable, can sometimes mutate and thus survive in a new environment.

Subordinating conjunctions and clauses
Must although or even though be in a clause that contains a subject and verb?
No, not necessarily. I will give you some official questions in which this guideline does not hold.
Subordinating conjunctions do not always need a subject and verb. I discuss the issue after the POE.

THE PROMPT

Quote:
Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, has demonstrated high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.


THE OPTIONS

Quote:
A) Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, has demonstrated high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.

• Most of the time, although should be followed by a clause with a subject and a verb.
-- no subject exists, and ranging is not a verb
-- Ranging acts a noun.
-- Ranging is a gerund (a verbING, and in this case, a verb-like noun)

• the adverb naturally can modify the gerund "ranging."
-- This fact is rarely taught as far as I can tell: a gerund retains some verb-like qualities.
(1) A gerund can take a direct object
-- Carrying a heavy pack, the special forces soldier nonetheless moved through the forest noiselessly.
(2) A gerund such as ranging can be modified by an adverb such as naturally. Similarly,
-- Noiselessly carrying a heavy pack through the forest, the special forces soldier took slow steps.
-- Although naturally ranging is acceptable but awkward prose that modifies the noun (the grape vine).

-- some sources will tell you, incorrectly, that this introductory phrase must say Although + Subject + Verb. Not necessarily.
KEEP this option. It is grammatical. Its prose, though, is not great.

Quote:
B) Although its habitat ranges naturally from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, but Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, has demonstrated high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.

• Almost without exception, although and but cannot be in the same sentence if only two ideas are present. Both words imply contrast.
• Why did I hedge with the words "almost always"? If "but" is an adverb meaning "no more than" or "only," the words but and although can be in one sentence with only two ideas:
Although he returned to playing soccer after his accident, he was but a shadow of the formidable midfielder he had once been.
• I have not seen an official question whose correct answer included but and although are in the same sentence.
Eliminate B

Quote:
C) Even though it has a natural range from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, [i]Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, had demonstrated[/i] high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.

• wrong verb tense. Had demonstrated is called past perfect and is used to talk about "the past of the past."
• when two events happen in the past and one precedes the other, we often use past perfect [had + past participle]to talk about the event earlier in time
-- The restaurant had just opened when I arrived in search of coffee.
• in order to use past perfect, there must be at least one verb in simple tense or a time stamp (such as "by Friday night) that similarly "marks off" the later-in-time.
Eliminate C

Quote:
D) Despite its naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, [i]Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, demonstrates[/i] high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.

• The sentence is grammatical. It is also a rhetorical and stylistic disaster.
• The preposition despite can be followed only by a noun, noun phrase or pronoun.
-- Its naturally ranging is a noun phrase.
-- Ranging is a gerund. Gerunds act as nouns.
-- Yes, the possessive its should precede ranging.
-- as in Option A, the adverb naturally can modify ranging.
Grammatical? Yes. Well-constructed? No.
-- its naturally ranging is awkwardly written.
Raxit85 , this phrasing is an example of rhetorical construction
-- The best way to decide such issues is to read a lot of prose in English and to compare answers.
-- a dedicated noun such as range is preferred to a gerund (a verbING) such as ranging
-- the construction requires its
D: possessive pronoun that sounds weird (its) + naturally (an adverb) + not-dedicated form of the noun, ranging
KEEP, but not happily

Quote:
E) Although the natural habitat of [i]Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the plant has demonstrated[/i] high levels of adaptability and can sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment.

• Bingo. The problem in option A is solved.
The word although is followed by a clause with a subject (habitat) and a verb (ranges)
• the verb has demonstrated is correct
-- It is okay to shift verb tenses within a sentence.
-- To talk about things that began in the past and continue into the present and to talk about events whose exact beginning does not matter but whose result does, we often use present perfect, this way: has/have + past participle
-- We can shift to simple present in order to express a general truth, can mutate.
-- (The plant's having adapted is not a general truth. That fact is a description of history.)

Option E's phrasing is much better than the grammatical but stiff and awkward phrasing in option D.

The answer is E

• NOTES

MYTH: Although and even though (and other subordinating conjunctions) must always be followed by a subject and verb in a clause.

The sentences below the spoilers are correct answers to official questions. Although and though are not followed by clauses.
I give only two examples. At least a dozen more examples exist.
Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today seem to indicate that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession.
You can find that sentence here.
Although is followed by a noun modifier: this time the verbING word is an adjective that modifies economy.

[color=#2e3192]Though tiny, blind, and translucent[/color], a recently discovered species of catfish has thickened bones and armor plates on its sides that lessen its vulnerability.
Though is also followed by noun modifiers: the adjectives tiny, blind, and translucent describe a species of catfish.
You can find that sentence here.


Takeaways:
(1) Remember the middle ground. Subordinating conjunctions almost always are followed by a subject and verb in a full clause, but
(2) It is a myth that although must be followed by a clause.
(3) If two choices are otherwise equal but one contains although + clause (as in E) and the other contains although + not clause (as in A), presume that the one with the clause is correct. (Presume that E is correct and if you are worried, try to convince yourself that "although + no clause" is a better answer. You are probably not correct.)
(4) If you are not a native speaker, do not worry too much if everything else seems fine (as in option E) but the verb tense changes.
Verbs attached to the same subject can change tenses in the same sentence.

COMMENTS

These comments are hilarious:
eakabuah
Quote:
This [vine's adaptability] makes me start to wonder if the plant will do well in my backyard.)

:lol: :lol: In Accra? No. (I'm teasing. Ghana is huge. I have no idea which part you live in. I recall your mentioning Ghana.)

mykrasovski
Quote:
After writing a reply for this problem I want to get either some grapes or a glass of wine :)

:lol: Go get wine. Definitely. A glass? At this point I'm ready for a bottle.
(I'm kidding. I never drink a whole bottle of wine.)

exc4libur (who is really good at parsing meaning) - not sure whether the dry wit was intended, but it's funny. :lol:
Quote:
MEANING
Although the plant's habitat range from X to Y, the plant is very adaptable and can mutate to new environments - such as, outside the range.


chondro48
Quote:
"Naturally ranging..." is weird.

Agreed. :lol:

Almost everyone wrote very good explanations.
We have a couple wobbles here and there, but that fact is good news.
Why? it's better to get these little wrinkles out and in one place so that we can clear them up.

Kudos to all.



Can you please explain for option A?
It's not plant that is ranging, its habitat is ranging. So how can we keep A option in first place?
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Although naturally ranging from Western Europe to the Persian shores o   [#permalink] 13 Dec 2019, 22:13

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