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# Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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02 May 2005, 15:18
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 22:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2013, 07:24
ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.

How should one weigh for C and D??

Simple rule that gmat follows:

If A implies B.

It is not necessary that negation of A implies negation of B

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2013, 09:33
ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.

How should one weigh for C and D??

If you spot this word "see bold part" clearly D is the right answer. In less than 30 seconds
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2013, 22:27
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2013, 07:49
WinWinMBA wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Has to be D. Stimulus says
Cannot be a PS, it has to be GSE because it uses SM.
What is assumed? That Any field of study that uses SM is a GSE

Perfect
Hope it helps
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2014, 16:38
There seems to be a lot of confusion between C and D.

According to the Powerscore CR Bible - If it's a cause/effect relationship, in this case, "if it uses x then it is a genuine scientific enterprise" is our cause/effect relationship. If you show that the negative is true, which c does "no experiments therefore not scientific" -- why is that wrong?
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2014, 01:57
Process of elimination gives us option D ..All other options cannot be thoroughly verified from the statements given.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2014, 07:17
Folaa3 wrote:
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.

Came to the same result.

From the text, I concluded that X (use of experiments and tests) -> Y ("being science")

So normally, if I see an answer choice that gives me the relation: not X -> not Y will be correct.
In C, we have "not X -> not Y" and in D "X -> Y"

Can someone help?
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2014, 06:18
Conclusion : Fact a genuine scientific enterprise
Premise : Methods

A, Repeating the last words
C, No way stated , Weakens the conclusion
D, The field which follows these methods are genuine

So D

Is my analysis is right!
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2014, 02:49
voodoochild wrote:
sudhir18n wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo

As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.

Question - how do you know that this is not a CE ? The PS says that when the sentence starts with For, because, caused by etc. it's CE. for it uses scientific

I do not agree with answer C because just by doing experiment will not do.
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2015, 08:51
I'll state my reasoning for C and D.

If we talk about PowerScore CR, you know that we have a Supporter and a Defender. We use a Defender when the argument don't have any gaps, and we just eliminate a possible weakness as in choice (C). But here we have an evident GAP between the premises
parapsychology -> is genuine scientific enterprise
parapsychology -> uses scientific methods.
Missing Assumption: Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise

Do you see a gap here ? Do you see a connection between scintific methods and genuine enterprise ? NO
So we need a Supporter as (D) to fill the gap.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2015, 14:29
WinWinMBA wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly stable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

B/w D and E, I choose D. E distorts the fact in the argument
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2016, 06:27
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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11 May 2016, 21:41
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

Conclusion: parapsychology is a genuine science
Premise : parapsychology uses scientific methods

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
This options is out of scope as the premise doesn't say about conclusively answering the question.

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
This options is out of scope as the premise doesn't say about credible results answering the question.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
The option is incorrect as "statistical tests" and "Controlled Experiments" are just two methods of scientific methods. There might be other methods that might be employed to prove the hypothesis using scientific methods

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
This is the assumption as it connects the scientific methods to a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
This option takes the argument one step further and is not an assumption.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,   [#permalink] 11 May 2016, 21:41

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