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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 22:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2012, 07:13
alex01 wrote:
roygush wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

so now i quickly elimnated a,b,e - not related to anything.

im now facing either C or D.
i wanted to check those using the negation technique from PowerScore CR Bible.

how should i negate C?
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS genuine science.
or maybe
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS NOT genuine science.
where should I add my own NOT?

D is easier:
any field of study that employs scientific methods is NOT genuine scientific enterprise.

the OA is D but i wasnt sure.
can anyone share light on this issue?

thanks,
Roy


I’m not 100% sure about this since I didn’t always use the negation technique but your negation of answer choice D is a polar opposite (any field of study…is → your negation: any field of study…is NOT). However, you should create the logical opposite; to do this, I would focus on “any” in C and D because in this context it works similar to “all”.
So, my suggestions would look something like this:

C: Not all enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are not genuine science.
This means at least one enterprise that does not use controlled experiments IS genuine science. This does not cause the argument to fall apart.

D. Not all fields of study that employ scientific methods are genuine scientific enterprises.
This means that there is at least one field of study that employs scientific methods and is nevertheless NOT a genuine scientific enterprise. So we cannot conclude that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise just because it uses scientific methods. (= argument falls apart, D is the correct answer)


Kudos!
but how can you tell that ANY ---> NOT ALL?
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2012, 14:40
roygush wrote:

Kudos!
but how can you tell that ANY ---> NOT ALL?
thanks


Well, I'm not a native speaker but in the answer choices C & D "any" means "every":

C. Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science. = Every single enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science = All enterprises that do not use...are not genuine science -> Negation: Not all

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2013, 04:46
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.


How should one weigh for C and D??

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2013, 07:24
ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.


How should one weigh for C and D??


Simple rule that gmat follows:

If A implies B.

It is not necessary that negation of A implies negation of B

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2013, 09:33
ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.


How should one weigh for C and D??



If you spot this word "see bold part" clearly D is the right answer. In less than 30 seconds
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:27
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2013, 07:49
WinWinMBA wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.


Has to be D. Stimulus says
Cannot be a PS, it has to be GSE because it uses SM.
What is assumed? That Any field of study that uses SM is a GSE

Perfect
Hope it helps
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2014, 16:38
There seems to be a lot of confusion between C and D.

According to the Powerscore CR Bible - If it's a cause/effect relationship, in this case, "if it uses x then it is a genuine scientific enterprise" is our cause/effect relationship. If you show that the negative is true, which c does "no experiments therefore not scientific" -- why is that wrong?

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2014, 01:57
Process of elimination gives us option D ..All other options cannot be thoroughly verified from the statements given.

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2014, 07:17
Folaa3 wrote:
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.


Came to the same result.

From the text, I concluded that X (use of experiments and tests) -> Y ("being science")

So normally, if I see an answer choice that gives me the relation: not X -> not Y will be correct.
In C, we have "not X -> not Y" and in D "X -> Y"

Can someone help?

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2014, 06:18
Conclusion : Fact a genuine scientific enterprise
Premise : Methods

A, Repeating the last words
B, Least bothered about results
C, No way stated , Weakens the conclusion
D, The field which follows these methods are genuine
E, Least about Questions

So D

Is my analysis is right!
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2014, 02:49
voodoochild wrote:
sudhir18n wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Can anyone please help me ?

Thanks
Voodoo


As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.


Question - how do you know that this is not a CE ? The PS says that when the sentence starts with For, because, caused by etc. it's CE. for it uses scientific



I do not agree with answer C because just by doing experiment will not do.

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2015, 08:51
I'll state my reasoning for C and D.

If we talk about PowerScore CR, you know that we have a Supporter and a Defender. We use a Defender when the argument don't have any gaps, and we just eliminate a possible weakness as in choice (C). But here we have an evident GAP between the premises
parapsychology -> is genuine scientific enterprise
parapsychology -> uses scientific methods.
Missing Assumption: Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise

Do you see a gap here ? Do you see a connection between scintific methods and genuine enterprise ? NO
So we need a Supporter as (D) to fill the gap.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2015, 14:29
WinWinMBA wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly stable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.



B/w D and E, I choose D. E distorts the fact in the argument

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2017, 22:03
Hi Experts,
Can you please elaborate POE (C vs D) based on necessary vs sufficient condition.
I read through trailing answers and am convinced with usage of 'because' in case
of 'for it uses' in original sentence but does not conditional statement needs to be if ..
then ..construction and not causal reasoning format?
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 01:56
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific
enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly
stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises. The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the
following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
no discussion about conclusive has been done in the argument.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
Credibility is not considered in the argument
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
There might be other scientific methods also available to prove that it is genuine sciences
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
The only criteria considered here is that to be a part of genuine science it must use scientific methods. This options uses such criteria.
Another assumptions could be which says that “No field of study is genuine scientific enterprise if it doesn’t employ scientific methods”.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
It has already been stated that parapsychology can be tested in controlled experiments.So it can’t be an assumption.Other than that,we are not sure whether parapsychology raises statble questions.


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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 19:23
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

Background - ( We are concerned about the definition of a scientific enterprise and not the conditions of doing it.)

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
Answer questions conclusively is not the whole motto of it. But to prove it by scientific methods.

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
We are not concerned about the credible results also.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
A tempting answer but look at the word entreprise? Are we are talking about what is entreprise and what is not or are we talking about the what is science and what is not.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
Look at my background information and relate to it.Just rephrases the definition.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
Are we concerned about the environment of the experiments?

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 22:01
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Error Analysis:

The conclusion is that it is Genuine Scientific Enterprise.
Premise:since parapsychology employs scientific methods to examine the questions it raises
We need to find an assumption.

Option A- The argument doesn't talk about conclusive results. Out of scope.
Option B- Will-extreme. Eliminate. We can't say if it will produce credible results.
Option C- Reverse. Eliminate.
Option D- Correct. Negate this Option, If any field of study that employs scientific methods is not a GSE, then the conclusion falls apart.
Option E- We don't know if it can be tested. Out of scope.

Therefore the answer is Option D.

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 05:31
Folaa3 wrote:
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.



The logic rules you have mentioned here are correct but option 'C' actually is Not X, then not Y and is thus incorrect.

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,   [#permalink] 13 Jul 2017, 05:31

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