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# Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and

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Joined: 22 Feb 2018
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Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and  [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2020, 05:18
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:36) correct 42% (01:26) wrong based on 111 sessions

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Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and Hyundai of South Korea, have come through the terrible past year relatively unscathed, Toyota’s market share either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank well before the crisis struck.

A) either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank
B) either fell or is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that is shrinking
C) has either fallen or been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that has been shrinking
D) either fell nor is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that is shrinking
E) either has fallen and has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank
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Re: Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2020, 04:24
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Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and Hyundai of South Korea, have come through the terrible past year relatively unscathed, Toyota’s market share either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank well before the crisis struck.

A) either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank –1. Correct correlative parallelism of either … or; 2. – the past tense in -A market that shrank – syncs well with the past tense in the crisis struck. – (we don’t indeed need to use a past perfect for ‘shrank’ because of the use of ‘well before’.) The correct choice.

B) either fell or is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan –1. either fell (past tense) or is flat(present tense) cannot gel together .2. a market that is shrinking well before the crisis struck ‘ is gibberish.

C) has either fallen or been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan –‘ a market that has been shrinking’ well before the crisis struck is a tense error.

D) either fell nor is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – Either … nor is no legal idiom.

E) either has fallen and has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank -- either … and is not a legal idiom.

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Re: Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2020, 07:29
1
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Raxit85 wrote:
Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and Hyundai of South Korea, have come through the terrible past year relatively unscathed, Toyota’s market share either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank well before the crisis struck.

A) either has fallen or has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank
B) either fell or is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that is shrinking
C) has either fallen or been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that has been shrinking
D) either fell nor is flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that is shrinking
E) either has fallen and has been flat in every region in which Toyota operates except Japan – a market that shrank

A: This answer choice maintains parallelism and both appropriate idiom construction and proper tense use throughout the sentence. Thus, this answer choice is correct.

B: This answer choice fails to maintain parallelism between the verbs "fell" and "is flat", as the former is in the simple past tense and the latter is in the simple present tense. Additionally, B uses the present continuous verb "is shrinking" to refer to an action that concluded in the past. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

C: This answer choice incorrectly uses the present perfect continuous tense verb "has been falling" to refer to an action that concluded in the past. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

D: This answer choice repeats the errors seen in Option B. Additionally, D uses the incorrect idiom construction "either...nor" rather than the correct construction "either...or". Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

E: This answer choice utilizes the incorrect idiom construction "either...and", rather than the correct construction "either...or". Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Please note that in Option A, although the verb "shrank" refers to the earlier of two actions that concluded in the past, the past perfect tense does not need to be applied because the phrase "well before" clearly indicates the order of events.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Past Perfect Tense - Use of Had on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):

To understand the concept of "Either-Or and Neither-Nor on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the concept of "Present Perfect Continuous Tense on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
Experts' Global Team
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Re: Although some of Toyota’s rivals, notably Volkswagen of Germany and   [#permalink] 13 Mar 2020, 07:29