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# Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written

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Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 May 2009, 14:14
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Source : Official Guide 2017

Question : CR 636
Page : 537

Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written in an alphabet date from the eighth century B.C., the fact that the text of these Greek inscriptions sometimes runs from right to left and sometimes from left to right indicates that the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries before these inscriptions were produced. After all, the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and presumably, along with the alphabet, they also adopted the then-current Phoenician practice with respect to the direction of text. And although Phoenician writing was originally inconsistent in direction, by the eighth century B.C. Phoenician was consistently written from right to left and had been for about two centuries.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.

(B) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish.

(E) The first provides evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by WaterFlowsUp on 14 Sep 2014, 07:44, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 May 2009, 15:29

would have picked B on the test, given time constraint
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 May 2009, 16:21
I will go with B, Can you please explain logic for D ?
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 May 2009, 18:39
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neeshpal wrote:
Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written in an alphabet date from the eighth century B.C., a strong case can be made that the Greeks actually adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries earlier. Significantly, the text of these earliest surviving Greek inscriptions sometimes runs from right to left and sometimes from left to right. Now, the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and in the process they would surely have adopted whatever convention the Phoenicians were then using with respect to the direction of writing. Originally, Phoenician writing ran in either direction, but by the eighth century B.C. it had been consistently written from right to left for about two centuries.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second reports a discovery that has been used to support a position that the argument opposes.
B. The first is the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second presents an assumption on which the argument relies.
C. The first presents evidence that is used in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second presents an assumption on which the argument relies.
D. The first is an objection raised against a position that the argument opposes; the second is the position that the argument seeks to establish.
E. The first is an objection raised against a position that the argument opposes; the second is evidence that has been used to support that position.

Yes, the first bold-face is also the argument and its intention is to assert that the Greek adopted alphabetic writing 2 earlier from 8 century B.C, so:
(C): 1st BF present evidence -->wrong

The second boldface has "would have" sounds like an assumption. Also:
- Because Greek learn alphabetic writing from Phoenician, hence adopting their using of direction writing, and because Phoenician use either directions --> Greek would have use either directions
- Because by 8 century B.C, Phoenician consistently wrote from right to left for about 2 centuries, then started to write either direction and because the evidence of earliest Greek inscription shows that they wrote in either direction --> earliest inscription of Greek couldn't appear at 8 century B.C but appear at 2 centuries earlier (in BC, the chronological is reverse) --> supporting the 1st BF

So:
(A): 2nd BF support a position that the argument oppose --> wrong
(D): 2nd BF is argument seeks to establish --> it is not an argument
(E): 2nd BF is evidence --> no

So B is the best choice
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Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 14:57
Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written in an alphabet date from the eighth century B.C., the fact that the text of these Greek inscriptions sometimes runs from right to left and sometimes from left to right indicates that the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries before these inscriptions were produced. After all, the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and presumably, along with the alphabet, they also adopted the then-current Phoenician practice with respect to the direction of text. And although Phoenician writing was originally inconsistent in direction, by the eighth century B.C. Phoenician was consistently written from right to left and had been for about two centuries.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.

(B) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish.

(E) The first provides evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Other type of this question exists but this is another version. Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos ) . OA after explanations.

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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 02:44
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Premise 1: the text of these Greek inscriptions sometimes runs from right to left and sometimes from left to right

Premise 2: the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and presumably, along with the alphabet, they also adopted the then-current Phoenician practice with respect to the direction of text

Premise 3: Phoenician writing was originally inconsistent in direction, by the eighth century B.C. Phoenician was consistently written from right to left and had been for about two centuries

Conclusion: the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries before the eight century because they adopted the then-current Phoenician practice with respect to the direction of text and because the Phoenician writing was originally inconsistent in direction.

(A) The first and the second each describe evidence that has been used to challenge the position that the argument seeks to establish.
no, the bold portions support the conclusion.

(B) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
no, the first evidence supports the conclusion

(C) The first is evidence that forms the basis for an objection to the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a
consideration that is introduced to counter the force of that evidence.
no, the first evidence supports the conclusion

(D) The first and the second each provide evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish.
IMO correct

(E) The first provides evidence in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position.
the second is not the position but rather evidence in support of the position.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2009, 18:54
D is right IMO because both the bold parts are evidences which are used to prove that the position they learnt language two centuries earlier than what those inscriptions suggest ..
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2009, 04:03
Can someone explain why the second bold face is not a position but an evidence?

I am not able to see any evidence in the second boldface. It do not tell that the texts or scripts found show something, so how can it be considered evidence?
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2009, 05:18
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sudeep wrote:
Can someone explain why the second bold face is not a position but an evidence?

I am not able to see any evidence in the second boldface. It do not tell that the texts or scripts found show something, so how can it be considered evidence?

The position is the main point that the author seeks to establish.
In this argument the position that the author tries to convey is that the Greeks adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries before the eight century.

So "almost" everything that supports that position can be evidence in support of the argument.

The second boldace helps support the argument. It's written in a rebuttal form. First the author accepts minor flaw "Phoenician writing was originally inconsistent in direction" and then concludes with evidence that he wants to show in support of his main point "by the eighth century B.C. Phoenician was consistently written from right to left and had been for about two centuries".

If this does not help, let me know.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2009, 18:26
going with D as both are facts needed to establish the position that the greeks adopted alphabet from the Phoenicians two centuries before 8century BC
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2009, 08:38
D seems to be correct.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2009, 00:35
imo - d
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2009, 01:41
D is fine.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2009, 04:11
IMO D
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2009, 07:14
The argument here is that the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written in an alphabet date from the eighth century B.C., but it actually dates 2 centuries before that.
both the boldface data together with premise "the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and presumably, along with the alphabet, they also adopted the then-current Phoenician practice with respect to the direction of text", prove this fact.
Hence the option should be D,
Even the options, which say a certain statement is a "position" are erroneous since neither of the two are conclusions by themselves. This excludes B,C and E
A is either way erroneous, because both the statements intend to reinforce the argument rather than weaken it
Hence D....
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2009, 08:23
Wts the diffrence b/w argument and position..are these same...pls explain in above context..
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 09:14
IMO D, because of 2 reasons:
(i) both the highlighted portions are evidences and
(ii) they both indicate towards the final position of the author
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2009, 00:26
neeshpal wrote:
Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written in an alphabet date from the eighth century B.C., a strong case can be made that the Greeks actually adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries earlier. Significantly, the text of these earliest surviving Greek inscriptions sometimes runs from right to left and sometimes from left to right. Now, the Greeks learned alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians, and in the process they would surely have adopted whatever convention the Phoenicians were then using with respect to the direction of writing. Originally, Phoenician writing ran in either direction, but by the eighth century B.C. it had been consistently written from right to left for about two centuries.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second reports a discovery that has been used to support a position that the argument opposes.
B. The first is the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second presents an assumption on which the argument relies. Correct
C. The first presents evidence that is used in support of the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second presents an assumption on which the argument relies.
D. The first is an objection raised against a position that the argument opposes; the second is the position that the argument seeks to establish.
E. The first is an objection raised against a position that the argument opposes; the second is evidence that has been used to support that position.

I chose B
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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14 May 2010, 02:10
1
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OA is B.
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Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written [#permalink]

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14 May 2010, 11:40
my pick is B.

how can it be D?

1) a strong case can be made that the Greeks actually adopted alphabetic writing at least two centuries earlier.

2) they would surely have adopted whatever convention the Phoenicians were then using with respect to the direction of writing.

D says....The first is an objection raised against a position that the argument opposes; the second is the position that the argument seeks to establish.

the first sentence is not making any objection....I think we need some expert opinion here.
Re: Although the earliest surviving Greek inscriptions written   [#permalink] 14 May 2010, 11:40

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