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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that

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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2008, 17:49
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Question Stats:

44% (01:28) correct 56% (01:38) wrong based on 906 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 26: Sentence Correction (SC1)

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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

TIME September 28, 1981 | Vol. 118 No. 13

We, the Jury, Find the . . . LINK
By Otto Friedrich
Monday, Sept. 28, 1981

If the jury is fundamental to the U.S. system of justice, then it is clearly fundamental that the selection of jurors must also be just. Though the U.S. Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that the newly emancipated blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the court's principle that all juries must be drawn from "a fair cross section of the community." And how is such a cross section to be determined? The traditional method was that "key men" in the community—bankers and merchants, for the most part—drew up lists of responsible citizens who would serve. Not until this past winter was the last such key-man system discarded, in New Hampshire, after a conviction based on it was overturned.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 03:14
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I read a excellent explanation fr this question by someone on 1000 sc forum:

Analysis:
Verb Tense
- has been
- was
- was to be
- is necessary
- will be

It starts in the past and now in the present - Present Perfect Tense

Parallelism
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing
- in developing and enforcing
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing

Also, Subordinate clause
that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service

main clause
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being
- of all juries to be
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being

Idioms
- necessary for
- necessary to

B - out past tense, of juries being
C - out past tense, of all juries to be
E - out future tense, of all juries being

Between A and D
tense: has been vs. is
parallelism: both correct
Main vs. Subordinate: both correct
Idiom: necessary to both correct

A - past to present
D - present

A - Correct
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2009, 13:29
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1
decision was made in 1880

it took 100 years to completely implement

hence you need continous tense and answer choice A has it
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2009, 21:39
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101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

A is more precise than B.
Multiple clues to eliminate B.
1. being...
2. the principle of

Note that you can easily frame a correct sentence even if the second part is in simple past tense.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2012, 03:49
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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
Correct
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
" to develop and enforce" is better
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
Awkward
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
Change the meaning : like a prediction
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
Change the meaning of the sentence
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2012, 21:29
2
My Approach -->
Since the sentence can take multiple tense form depending on what it means so i did not rely on that.
Principle must be followed by that

Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
NOw in A and D ,
NEarly a century of cases indicates present continous so A.

PLEase correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2012, 20:51
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monir6000 wrote:
Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

i was stuck between A and D. finally picked A. the intended meaning of the sentence is that court ruled in 1880 that Black could not be excluded outright from Jury service. the second represents a flow of time-line by stating "century of case-by-case adjudication". So D is out. correct me if i am wrong
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2012, 13:37
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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be ('has been', the present perfect, fits well with something that started 'nearly a century' ago and presumably continues today).
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being ('being' is awkward).
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be ('was to be necessary' awkward)
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be (because this action started at some point in the past, the use of 'is' is inappropriate).
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being ('being' is awkward)
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2012, 03:24
ChrisLele wrote:
Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be ('has been', the present perfect, fits well with something that started 'nearly a century' ago and presumably continues today).
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being ('being' is awkward).
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be ('was to be necessary' awkward)
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be (because this action started at some point in the past, the use of 'is' is inappropriate).
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being ('being' is awkward)

Can you explain why Being is not required overhere? I am really confuse in using of being. someone says that, Being is always worng in GMAT. Kindly clarify.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2012, 20:12
3
Although this question is not directed to me, I will share what I know about this topic.

"being" is not always wrong in the GMAT. It is wrong in most cases (say 99% of the time) when not used correctly.

"Being" can be used as a noun, a verb, a participle adjective or adverb.

"being" is wrong here because it's been used as a verb without a preceding help verb (is, was been etc).
You can say "this girl is being crazy" or "this boy was being whipped" but not "this girl being crazy".

Hope this helps.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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29 May 2013, 18:46
The intended meaning is "all juries must be drawn...". So B, C, E are out immediately. We need to keep the meaning of "MUST". Only A and D remain.

B - all juries being ==> Totally wrong.
C - enforcing the principle of all juries to be drawn ==> Wrong grammar & change meaning.
E - all juries being ==> Totally wrong.

A and D are contenders. However, D is wrong because of the simple tense. It's like "a century is necessary to do X and do Y.......". it sounds ridiculous.
The meaning here is after a long century of case-by-case adjudication......blah blah..... ==> The present perfect tense is correct.

Hence, A is correct.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2013, 10:55
2
I don't like this question because the action DIDN'T occur over a particular time!

It only occured once!!

Nearly a century (subject) was needed (predicate) to ......

It's not as if a century was needed in 1880, and another century was needed in 1979... we only needed the century once, in 1880. In 1881, we needed 99 years... 98 years after that, then 97... etc etc.

The actions that occur WITHIN that century, however, such as "to develop" and "to enforce" are ongoing.

B is wrong for idiomatic reasons, but the others are wrong grammatically.. so I picked B.

What is the source of this question?
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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14 May 2016, 23:15
sa18 wrote:
Can someone please explain why is B incorrect?

I think B is wrong because of its tense.The situation stated in the question has started long ago and is still in continuation and has not ended yet.Hence the tense (Present perfect progressive) Has Been is perfectly suitable.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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17 May 2016, 04:20
1
ynk wrote:
sa18 wrote:
Can someone please explain why is B incorrect?

I think B is wrong because of its tense.The situation stated in the question has started long ago and is still in continuation and has not ended yet.Hence the tense (Present perfect progressive) Has Been is perfectly suitable.

Please correct me if I am wrong.

Option B is wrong for 2 reasons:

1. For conveying an intent infinitive is a better choice. Hence "to develop and enforce" is better than " for developing and enforcing"
2. The usage "the principle of all juries being drawn" is wrong. The phrase implies that the principle belonged to the juries who were being drawn.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 14:58
Don't understand why D is incorrect. What does "century of" has to do with the verb tense??

Could someone please clarify? Thanks!
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 02:35
3
manhasnoname wrote:
Don't understand why D is incorrect. What does "century of" has to do with the verb tense??

Could someone please clarify? Thanks!

X is necessary to do Y: implies that the necessity is in the present.

X has been necessary to do Y: implies that the necessity has been there for some time.

"A century of" implies that the necessity has been there for a century - therefore "has been" is better than "is".

Option D implies that the necessity is from now to 100 years from now. Option A implies that the necessity has been from 1880 (or some point of time in the past) to 100 years from that point.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2016, 04:32
Maulikgmat wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
I think for developing and in developing is correct use??
I am unable to understand the use of tenses.Although supreme court ruled long ago then was must be used in the sentence instead of has or is???
Plz help in clarifying the answer from tenses point of view.

Went for A) as well.

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be

Wouldn't we need a "to" in front of enforce to make the fragment parallel, as "and" functions as a parallelism marker?

Still went for A), because the sentence effects the present and therefore present perfect is needed.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 14:09
goalsnr wrote:
Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

Case by case adjudication started in 1880 and got over by 1980. So simple past tense should be the correct usage. Use of "has been" would be correct if the even were still on or just completed.

Please help.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2018, 09:36
Bumping up this question as the project butler Question.

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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:26
goalsnr wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 26: Sentence Correction (SC1)

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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

Official Explanation:

Choice A is best: has been appropriately refers to recently completed action. In B, was does not indicate that the action is recent. Also, necessary for developing . . .is less idiomatic than necessary to develop . . . , and principle of all juries being is less direct than principle that all juries must be. The to be infinitives make choice C incorrect. The present tense is in D and the future tense will be in E make these choices faulty.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that   [#permalink] 03 Dec 2018, 07:26
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