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Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that

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101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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New post 25 Feb 2009, 14:29
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decision was made in 1880

it took 100 years to completely implement

hence you need continous tense and answer choice A has it
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New post 25 Feb 2009, 15:01
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....


D means "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" is a necessary condition where as A means it took "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be from “a fair cross section of the community".


So A is correct. I was also leaning toward B but B has "being" and changes the tense.
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New post 26 Feb 2009, 06:16
Thanks. The OA is A.
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101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being


A is more precise than B.
Multiple clues to eliminate B.
1. being...
2. the principle of

Note that you can easily frame a correct sentence even if the second part is in simple past tense.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2009, 00:55
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

In B being almost always wrong in Gmat SC, so it is out
In C was to be....to be awkward
In E will be ...being
Between A and D, I choose A because of the phrase "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" needs a present perfect tense
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New post 14 Jun 2009, 05:01
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....


I have eliminated B,E since usage of being . I have eliminated D due to usage of ''is'' . But why C is wrong ? Can somebody explain?
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New post 16 Jul 2009, 19:48
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
I think for developing and in developing is correct use??
I am unable to understand the use of tenses.Although supreme court ruled long ago then was must be used in the sentence instead of has or is???
Plz help in clarifying the answer from tenses point of view.
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has been is used when an event which started in the past continues in the present.

B looks like the correct ans.What is the OA?
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2009, 06:46
I went for A

I found this : sc-1000-series-court-rule-76064.html
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New post 02 Aug 2009, 03:14
A.

"has been" is required to indicate that "to develop and enforce the principle" started in the past and still continue today.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2010, 21:55
Very close between A and B. B has being so that eliminates the choice. So has to be A
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2010, 22:59
A for me,, continous tense required in the sentence
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New post 23 Dec 2010, 09:48
yea B is deceiving though.. tough one..:(
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2011, 07:58
The action clearly started in the past. However, it continued into present.
Hence, A for me too.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2011, 10:05
even A is wrong. enforce + must redundant. The source must be unofficial.

WarriorAjay wrote:
The action clearly started in the past. However, it continued into present.
Hence, A for me too.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2011, 07:44
I marked B but feel even that is wrong

B has 'enforcing the principle of all juries ' - we need that as in D.

As for tense, I guess simple past is correct
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2011, 05:58
I go for A.

A: the tense used "past perfect" in the sentence best describes the action (develop and enforce), which has started in the past and still continues to the present.

B: 1st: the simple past tense used is wrong 2nd: necessary for is not idiomatic, rather necessary + infinitive "to" should be used. 3rd: the word "being" is not preferred in GMAT.

C: wrong tense used, and "was to be necessary" awkward and unidiomatic

D: wrong tense used

E: wrong tense used

So why past perfect? the indicator is the "a century of" and the time indicated before that.

Or POE method:
And it is definitely not logical to use either "present" or "future" tense. So D, E are out.

Then, B & C are out because of the unidiomatic use as I mentioned before.

SO A :)
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I read a excellent explanation fr this question by someone on 1000 sc forum:


Analysis:
Verb Tense
- has been
- was
- was to be
- is necessary
- will be

It starts in the past and now in the present - Present Perfect Tense

Parallelism
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing
- in developing and enforcing
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing

Also, Subordinate clause
that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service

main clause
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being
- of all juries to be
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being

Idioms
- necessary for
- necessary to

B - out past tense, of juries being
C - out past tense, of all juries to be
E - out future tense, of all juries being

Between A and D
tense: has been vs. is
parallelism: both correct
Main vs. Subordinate: both correct
Idiom: necessary to both correct

A - past to present
D - present

A - Correct
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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was confused b/w A and D,eventually chose D :( ..i keep commiting errors when it comes to VebTense :(
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2011, 04:26

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