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# Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that

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Director
Joined: 01 Aug 2008
Posts: 732
Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2009, 12:19
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Question Stats:

54% (01:55) correct 46% (01:11) wrong based on 269 sessions

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101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
VP
Joined: 05 Jul 2008
Posts: 1408
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2009, 14:29
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it took 100 years to completely implement

hence you need continous tense and answer choice A has it
SVP
Joined: 29 Aug 2007
Posts: 2473
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2009, 15:01
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”

(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....

D means "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" is a necessary condition where as A means it took "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be from “a fair cross section of the community".

So A is correct. I was also leaning toward B but B has "being" and changes the tense.
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Director
Joined: 01 Aug 2008
Posts: 732
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2009, 06:16
Thanks. The OA is A.
Manager
Joined: 17 Dec 2008
Posts: 173
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2009, 22:39
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101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

A is more precise than B.
Multiple clues to eliminate B.
1. being...
2. the principle of

Note that you can easily frame a correct sentence even if the second part is in simple past tense.
Manager
Joined: 11 Aug 2008
Posts: 154
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2009, 00:55
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

In B being almost always wrong in Gmat SC, so it is out
In C was to be....to be awkward
In E will be ...being
Between A and D, I choose A because of the phrase "nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication" needs a present perfect tense
Manager
Joined: 17 Jul 2008
Posts: 246
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2009, 05:01
ugimba wrote:
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being

please explain .... I chose D but that is not the answer ....

I have eliminated B,E since usage of being . I have eliminated D due to usage of ''is'' . But why C is wrong ? Can somebody explain?
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Manager
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Posts: 71
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2009, 19:48
101. Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service, nearly a century of case-by-case adjudication has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be drawn from “a fair cross section of the community.”
(A) has been necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(B) was necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
(C) was to be necessary in developing and enforcing the principle of all juries to be
(D) is necessary to develop and enforce the principle that all juries must be
(E) will be necessary for developing and enforcing the principle of all juries being
I think for developing and in developing is correct use??
I am unable to understand the use of tenses.Although supreme court ruled long ago then was must be used in the sentence instead of has or is???
Plz help in clarifying the answer from tenses point of view.
Manager
Joined: 17 Apr 2009
Posts: 153
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2009, 05:07
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has been is used when an event which started in the past continues in the present.

B looks like the correct ans.What is the OA?
Director
Joined: 27 Jun 2008
Posts: 542
WE 1: Investment Banking - 6yrs
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2009, 06:46
I went for A

I found this : sc-1000-series-court-rule-76064.html
Manager
Joined: 13 Jul 2006
Posts: 64
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2009, 03:14
A.

"has been" is required to indicate that "to develop and enforce the principle" started in the past and still continue today.
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Senior Manager
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Posts: 311
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2010, 21:55
Very close between A and B. B has being so that eliminates the choice. So has to be A
Manager
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2010, 22:59
A for me,, continous tense required in the sentence
Manager
Joined: 26 Dec 2009
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Location: United Kingdom
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GMAT 1: 500 Q45 V16
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 09:48
yea B is deceiving though.. tough one..
Intern
Joined: 02 Feb 2011
Posts: 40
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2011, 07:58
The action clearly started in the past. However, it continued into present.
Hence, A for me too.
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2011, 10:05
even A is wrong. enforce + must redundant. The source must be unofficial.

WarriorAjay wrote:
The action clearly started in the past. However, it continued into present.
Hence, A for me too.
Senior Manager
Joined: 20 Jul 2010
Posts: 263
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2011, 07:44
I marked B but feel even that is wrong

B has 'enforcing the principle of all juries ' - we need that as in D.

As for tense, I guess simple past is correct
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Intern
Joined: 01 Jan 2011
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Location: Zurich
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2011, 05:58
I go for A.

A: the tense used "past perfect" in the sentence best describes the action (develop and enforce), which has started in the past and still continues to the present.

B: 1st: the simple past tense used is wrong 2nd: necessary for is not idiomatic, rather necessary + infinitive "to" should be used. 3rd: the word "being" is not preferred in GMAT.

C: wrong tense used, and "was to be necessary" awkward and unidiomatic

D: wrong tense used

E: wrong tense used

So why past perfect? the indicator is the "a century of" and the time indicated before that.

Or POE method:
And it is definitely not logical to use either "present" or "future" tense. So D, E are out.

Then, B & C are out because of the unidiomatic use as I mentioned before.

SO A
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Manager
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 04:14
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I read a excellent explanation fr this question by someone on 1000 sc forum:

Analysis:
Verb Tense
- has been
- was
- was to be
- is necessary
- will be

It starts in the past and now in the present - Present Perfect Tense

Parallelism
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing
- in developing and enforcing
- to develop and enforce
- for developing and enforcing

Also, Subordinate clause
that Blacks could not be excluded outright from jury service

main clause
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being
- of all juries to be
- that all juries must be
- of all juries being

Idioms
- necessary for
- necessary to

B - out past tense, of juries being
C - out past tense, of all juries to be
E - out future tense, of all juries being

Between A and D
tense: has been vs. is
parallelism: both correct
Main vs. Subordinate: both correct
Idiom: necessary to both correct

A - past to present
D - present

A - Correct
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Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2011, 04:26
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was confused b/w A and D,eventually chose D ..i keep commiting errors when it comes to VebTense
Re: Although the Supreme Court ruled as long ago as 1880 that   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2011, 04:26

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