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# Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150

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Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 09:36
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Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
a) their horny jaws function for teeth
b) its horny jaws function for teeth
c) its horny jaws function as do teeth
d) the horny jaws function as teeth do
e) the horny jaws function as teeth
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Re: SC: turtle species [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 19:09
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ugimba wrote:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
A. their horny jaws function for teeth
B. its horny jaws function for teeth
C. its horny jaws function as do teeth
D the horny jaws function as teeth do
E the horny jaws function as teeth

explain your choices ..

I believe the correct idiom is function as... so a,b, and c are out
Between D&E, D changes the meaning to say that the jaws perform the same functions as teeth do (the jaws chew), whereas E retains the original meaning that the jaws act as teeth -> so E

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2012, 13:47
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The correct idiom is 'function AS.' Eliminate (A) and (B).

(C) is incorrect because 'its' (a pronoun referring to the singular case) incorrectly refers to plural 'turtle species.'

(E) omits the verb 'function.' Because of the preposition 'AS', we are comparing verbs. The sentence should read "their horny jaws function as teeth function.' In standard English, you do not repeat the verb, but instead replace it with the 'do.'

Therefore, (D) is the answer.
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2012, 17:42
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ChrisLele wrote:
The correct idiom is 'function AS.' Eliminate (A) and (B).

(C) is incorrect because 'its' (a pronoun referring to the singular case) incorrectly refers to plural 'turtle species.'

(E) omits the verb 'function.' Because of the preposition 'AS', we are comparing verbs. The sentence should read "their horny jaws function as teeth function.' In standard English, you do not repeat the verb, but instead replace it with the 'do.'

Therefore, (D) is the answer.

Hi folks,

I’m afraid the correct answer for this one is choice E and not choice D.

Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.

Per the context of the sentence, it is not difficult to understand that here turtle’s “horny jaws” are NOT compared to “teeth”. The horny jaws actually play the role/function of teeth. Hence, this sentence presents function of horny jaws.

PoE:

A. their horny jaws function for teeth: Incorrect.
1. Plural pronoun “their” does not agree in number with singular “turtle”.
2. Use of “for” is incorrect.

B. its horny jaws function for teeth: Incorrect. Use of “for” is unidiomatic.

C. its horny jaws function as do teeth: Incorrect. Notice that “as” is followed by a clause here, presenting comparison. This is not correct because the sentence does not compare the horny jaws with teeth.

D the horny jaws function as teeth do: Incorrect. Same as choice C.

E the horny jaws function as teeth: Correct. When “as” is used to present role/function of something/someone, it is followed by a noun entity. Here “as” is correctly followed by noun entity “teeth”. Hence, this is the correct answer.

P.S: To be able to get rid of the confusion of when to use “as” and when to use “like”, read the article by clicking on the following link:
as-vs-like-correct-and-incorrect-usages-133950.html

Also. At e-gmat, we have 4 dedicated “In-depth” concepts for this topic with many exercise questions. In fact, “Usage of Like” features in our free concepts level – Level 1 Preview Concepts. Just log in to e-gmat.com, register for FREE and learn the concept.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Last edited by egmat on 18 Mar 2013, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.

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Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 17:41
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Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
A. their horny jaws function for teeth
B. its horny jaws function for teeth
C. its horny jaws function as do teeth
D the horny jaws function as teeth do
E the horny jaws function as teeth

explain your choices ..

Last edited by fameatop on 07 Sep 2013, 23:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SC: turtle species [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 23:57
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age wrote:
ugimba wrote:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
A. their horny jaws function for teeth ...function for is incorrect
B. its horny jaws function for teeth ...function for is incorrect
C. its horny jaws function as do teeth..
D the horny jaws function as teeth do
E the horny jaws function as teeth...corrrect..here as is used ...in the capacity of...or in the role of....

explain your choices ..

Agree with you, 'as' here is used for 'in the capacity of'
IMO E.
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 05:32
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Let us remember that the subject of the main sentence is not - some contemporary turtle species – but the moderately sharp and jagged edges.

Secondly, there is a rule that when you compare nouns you use like rather than as. If you are comparing the edges to teeth, then we have to say - the horny jaws function like teeth. -

On the contrary as is used normally while comparing actions, and therefore verbs, and therefore clauses containing verbs.

This is the problem in E. Here we are comparing sharp and jagged edges with teeth. Hence we have to say that the moderately sharp and jagged edges of the horny jaws function like teeth.

Now you may see why that the moderately sharp and jagged edges of the horny jaws function as teeth do is right as in D because as is rightly followed by teeth do which is a clause

IMO, whatever the OA, after eliminating A, B and C for too obvious reasons, between D and E, my vote will be for D
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 12:32
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debayan222 wrote:
Almost convinced Thanks Shardhha..!

But...still a little doubt left-don't you think that here we are comparing the functions (of teeth and that of sharp and jagged edges of the horny jaws) ?

P.S: Is it because of the fact that as the presence of teeth is virtual in this case so we're not doing the comparison of functions actually...?

Really appreciate your reply as always!

Hi Debayan,

Let's take a very basic example here:

I work as a GMAT expert with e-gmat.

Here, I am not compared to a GMAT expert. I am a GMAT expert. I function in the capacity of a GMAT expert.

In the very same way, the official sentence does not compare the "sharp abd jagged edges" with "teeth". It says that these "sharp and jagged edges" functions as "teeth". These edges themselves are the teeth in turtle. There is no question of any comparison here.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2017, 01:21
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Madhavi1990 wrote:
I understand why its E with regards to the idiom 'function as' - makes sense
What about the 'their' vs 'its' split - tortoises usually have the pronoun 'its' - which is correct in B. Would like some clarity on the doubts below:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.

a) their horny jaws function for teeth
b) its horny jaws function for teeth - correct in terms of pronoun
e) the horny jaws function as teeth - doesnt the 'the' word seem out of place/ without antecedent? The sentence now says "in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of the horny jaws function as teeth (the horny jaws doesn't seem as clear).

Madhavi1990

The subject of the sentence is the "turtle" and the turtle species are introduced just as an example. Hence, the pronoun should be singular i.e. 'its' or 'the' and not 'their' which is plural.

The correct idiom is 'X functions as Y.' Eliminate A and B.

In C and D, the inclusion of 'do' changes the meaning:

The jaws function as teeth. (This means that the jaws substitute for teeth. In other words, the jaws and teeth play the same role: both are used to eat. This is the intended meaning of the sentence.)
The jaws function as teeth do. (This means that the jaws and teeth operate the same way. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence. The jaws and teeth work differently.)

Eliminate C and D. The correct answer is E.
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 09:54
A uses their to refer to singular turtle. Wrong

B uses for. wrong

Among C, D & E, I feel do is unnecessary when the word function already encapsulates the idea that HJ performs functions similar to teeth

E is my pick.

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 12:28
straight E, cause it's the only option that compares silmilar things. C and D compares action to noun.

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 12:28
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
a) their horny jaws function for teeth
b) its horny jaws function for teeth
c) its horny jaws function as do teeth
d) the horny jaws function as teeth do
e) the horny jaws function as teeth

IMO E is the correct answer
the problem areas as per my opinion have been marked in red color

what is the OA for this one
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 16:12
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary 'turtle' species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.

a) their horny jaws function for teeth ----- 'their' is Plural - Should agree with 'turtle' in number

b) its horny jaws function for teeth ----- 'function for' is unidiomatic. It should be function AS x does.

c) its horny jaws function as do teeth

d) the horny jaws function as teeth do ------ It's the turtle's horny jaws that is being mentioned not some random horny jaw. Hence the possessive case 'its' should be used

e) the horny jaws function as teeth ------- Same as above + fuction as teeth 'do' is the correct way to compare an action.

Ans is C

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 18:01
Legend wrote:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary 'turtle' species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.

c) its horny jaws function as do teeth

e) the horny jaws function as teeth ------- Same as above + fuction as teeth 'do' is the correct way to compare an action.

here action is immaterial, the horny jaws "replace/act as" teeth in certain species of turtle, they don't replace the action done by teeth. and the correct idiom should be "X functions as Y"

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 18:19
i think we can eliminate A for unidiomatic "function for" rather than SVA since their here refers to "turtle species" rather than turtle...am i right in this reasoning..????

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 19:10
Should be 'C'

D and E are out because of not using 'its'

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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 21:01
vshaunak@gmail.com wrote:
Should be 'C'

D and E are out because of not using 'its'

Its or Their is not required.. A,B,C are out..

Here subject is clear.. "contemporaty turtle species"
"in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth"
= In X the moderately sharp and jagged edges of horny jaws function as teeth.
( it clear that we are talking about X's horny jaws .. We need not to refer with possive pronoun.. )

D) Y [of horny jaws] function as Z do. "Y" not || "Z do "
E) Y [of horny jaws] function as Z. Y ||Z

E is perfect.
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Re: Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 05:54
OA is E.

x2suresh wrote:
vshaunak@gmail.com wrote:
Should be 'C'

D and E are out because of not using 'its'

Its or Their is not required.. A,B,C are out..

Here subject is clear.. "contemporaty turtle species"
"in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth"
= In X the moderately sharp and jagged edges of horny jaws function as teeth.
( it clear that we are talking about X's horny jaws .. We need not to refer with possive pronoun.. )

D) Y [of horny jaws] function as Z do. "Y" not || "Z do "
Thanks x2suresh
This is exactly what i was confused about. whether Y is the entire first part or just horny jaws.

E) Y [of horny jaws] function as Z. Y ||Z

E is perfect.

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Re: SC: turtle species [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 19:33
ugimba wrote:
Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.
A. their horny jaws [strike]function for[/strike] teeth
B. its horny jaws [strike]function for[/strike] teeth
C. its horny jaws function [strike]as do[/strike] teeth
D the horny jaws function [strike]as teeth do[/strike]
E the horny jaws function as teeth

explain your choices ..

Question - between their and its... what would have been used ?
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Re: SC: turtle species [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 23:48
I go with E.

B and C are out because the sentence mentions in some species... Hence its more appropriate to use 'the'.

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Re: SC: turtle species   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2009, 23:48

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