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# Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American

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Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2009, 06:03
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Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900,scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages.

A) until almost 1900,scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Pls explain your answers. My main confusion is almost until and until almost. The OG's explanation on this is pathetic and ridiculous.

OA to be posted later.

Thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by doe007 on 07 May 2013, 20:04, edited 1 time in total.
If you have any questions
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16 Dec 2009, 07:47
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vibhaj wrote:
Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900,scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages.

A)until almost 1900,scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
B)until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
C)not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
D)it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
E)it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

Pls explain your answers. My main confusion is almost until and until almost. The OG's explanation on this is pathetic and ridiculous.

OA to be posted later.

Thanks

A) Until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
-“until almost 1900” is the adverbial clause. In this sentence it is not clear whether “until almost 1900” is modifying “had professed and had pretended” or “did”. Hence incorrect

B) Until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
-Past tense is required; hence incorrect

C) Not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
-“to begin seriously to study” is awkward; hence incorrect

D) It was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
-Split Infinite “to seriously study” is incorrect; moreover here it not clear whether “not” is modifying “was” or “almost”. Hence incorrect

E) It was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying
-correct

As for your confusion: almost until or until almost. It depends on the other parts of speeches constituting the sentence.
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04 Aug 2011, 21:07
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I am afraid that transition is not an issue here. The sentence means that although something is positively professsed, until almost 1900, it did not happen seriously. The negative marker ‘not’ in the main clause is the transition from the positive ‘professed’ in the subordinate portion. You may also notice that all the five choices carry this negative connotation in the main sentence.

However, the issue here is the misplacement of the adverb ‘seriously’. To carry the intent of the topic, ‘seriously’ should modify ‘begin’. In order to mark this modificiation un-ambiguously, ‘seriously’ should be placed ahead of begin. Sandwiching ‘seriously’ between ‘begin’ and ‘to study’, may lead to a possible mis-modification.

You might notice that, E is the only choice that carries through this intent earnestly. Hence E
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22 Sep 2011, 08:23
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until almost and almost until have different meaning.
I will not eliminate a choice right away because it has almost until 1900
Almost until 1900: Here almost actually modifies 'until 1900', is the meaning correct? NO!
Until almost 1900: Here, almost modifies 1900. correct meaning.
Note that similar words whose placement changes meaning on gmat choices are only, and, etc. Be careful while reading choices. these errors seem subtle but make a sentence non-sensical.
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Re: Usage of pronoun "it" [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2012, 12:36
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Case of Placeholder IT

IT is raining : Here, IT doesnt have an antecedent

IT is a pronoun : Here, IT doesnt refer back to anything / anyone

Eg : Although SKM is a regular poster on SC forum, IT is too early to form an opinion on his SC skills : Here, IT doesnt refer back to anything, just hangs there to give the sentence a logical structure.
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Re: OG 12 SC 3 [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 08:14
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These are the only genuine contenders

(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and
critics began to seriously study < changes the meaning>
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and
critics seriously began studying <bingo>
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04 Aug 2011, 19:52
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tracyyahoo wrote:
3. Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900 scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages.

a) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
b) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
c) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
d) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
e) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

why C is not correct?

I can explain Why B,C, D are wrong but can anyone please explain why A is wrong?

Original sentence is , Although poets had professed x and had pretended Y, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin study Z in native languages.
I don't know why A is wrong, Excuse me for that.
For B, the meaning of the sentence will be "until almost 1900 scholars and critics" means scholars and critics were 1900 in number, Wrong.
For C, it is saying "1900 were scholars and critics", how could a year (1900) be student and critics.
For D, almost is adjective and until is preposition so adjective should touch noun. so correct structure is until almost 1900.
To see this we can take below examples.
I kept my book on wood table. Here "Wood" is adjective and "on" is preposition.Now if I will change order
I kept my book wood on table. -----------------> Wrong.
For E, Until almost 1900 correct but don't know why we need "that"

Can someone please explain logic behind A.

I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.
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04 Aug 2011, 20:03
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rphardu wrote:
tracyyahoo wrote:
3. Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900 scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages.

a) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
b) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
c) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
d) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
e) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

why C is not correct?

I can explain Why B,C, D are wrong but can anyone please explain why A is wrong?

Original sentence is , Although poets had professed x and had pretended Y, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin study Z in native languages.
I don't know why A is wrong, Excuse me for that.
For B, the meaning of the sentence will be "until almost 1900 scholars and critics" means scholars and critics were 1900 in number, Wrong.
For C, it is saying "1900 were scholars and critics", how could a year (1900) be student and critics.
For D, almost is adjective and until is preposition so adjective should touch noun. so correct structure is until almost 1900.
To see this we can take below examples.
I kept my book on wood table. Here "Wood" is adjective and "on" is preposition.Now if I will change order
I kept my book wood on table. -----------------> Wrong.
For E, Until almost 1900 correct but don't know why we need "that"

Can someone please explain logic behind A.

I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.

Focus on the first word : Although = representative of a transition, a change of course .

Original Sentence:
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed X, until almost 1900, Y happened . ==> No evidence of transition.

Correct Sentence:

Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed X, it was not until almost 1900 that Y happened . ==> Voila !!! So thats the the transition.

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07 May 2012, 11:46
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Expert's post
Hi All,
Click on the following link to view the detailed solution of this OG question. The audio-visual solution is also available there:
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 20:05
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Expert's post
Click on the blog post below to see a very thorough analysis by Payal. She also has a video response. Don't forget the free Strategy Session this Saturday.

http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Regards,

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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 11:19
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lotus wrote:
B is the answer. not until almost is incorrect so C D E are out, seriously to study in A is incorrect

Hi there,

This is a question from OG 12 and the official answer to this question is E. To know why choice E is the ocrrect answer and what are the errors in the other answer choices, please click on the following link. We also have a detailed video solution for this question.
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Let us know if you have any doubt pertaining to this question.

Thanks.
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01 Sep 2012, 04:11
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Dear Friends
Kindly help me through this OG question

Q: Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native
American forms in their own works, it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.

This is a question from official guide 12th edition. I have written the correct sentence. Please elaborate the usage of pronoun"it" at the beginning of second clause. What is it referring to here?
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2013, 16:06
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thangvietnam wrote:
I have not studied gmat until now

is correct

I had not studied gmat untill 2010

is incorrect.

"had done" is not used to show the action which began before and continued into another past action/past point of time. (this is different from "have done")

I had finished gmat before 2010
is correct

is my thinking correct?

Hi thangvietnam,

Yes, usages of present perfect tense and past perfect tense are very different.
One of the usages of present perfect tense is that it can be used to denote an action that took place in the recent past nut the effect of which can be felt in the present. However, this past perfect tense cannot be used in this way. On GMAT, past perfect tense is used to show the verb sequencing. If two events took place in the past, we use past perfect tense for the earlier event and simple present tense for the later event.

I had finished GMAT 2010 before 2010.

This sentence is correct. However, we can write this sentence in simple past tense also because the presence of "before" which clearly establishes the time-frame that GMAT was finished before 2010. In presence of such time markers, use of past perfect tense becomes optional.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 17:49
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Dear vingmat001,

I will be happy to respond to your question. If I understand your question correctly, you are asking when it is correct for "it" to not have an antecedent. I believe that is what you mean when you say "dangling it". Please do correct me if my understanding of your question is not correct.

Let's look at this sentence:

It is very windy today.

In this sentence, you will see that "it" has no antecedent and "it" is used correctly. Basically such usage of it is referred to as "placeholder it".

Thus, you need to always go by the context of the sentence and determine if you really need a noun to replace the "it".

Now let's consider two official sentences:

Choice E of the question in discussion - "it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying"
Choice D of another official question - "It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology"

Here also "it" is used as a placeholder. Now how do you check that - ask yourself, can I replace this with any noun and still have the sentence make sense?
I look forward to your response for this question for both official answers above.

Regards,

Payal
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16 Dec 2009, 06:16
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since the nonunderlined portion starts with although, the 2nd part should give contrast.. so only D n E remain....
until almost should be the correct usage so E
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16 Dec 2009, 07:35
I was confused between A , D and E but IMO E ....

1900 when - may be correct

Already an action has taken place in the past 'had professed' and 'had pretended', so began is correct (simple past) and 'that scholars' sounds correct.

'Although' and 'until' both negate the situation, so until should not come immediately after comma i feel.

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Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2010, 11:33
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
American poets had professed an interest in Native
American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native
American forms in their own works, until almost 1900,
scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.
(A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not
begin seriously to study
(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not
begun seriously studying
(C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics
to begin seriously to study
(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and
critics began to seriously study
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and
critics seriously began studying

can you kindly explain me why A is not correct?
OA is E,
I cannot figure it out from OG explanation
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06 Feb 2010, 19:05
lucalelli88 wrote:
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
American poets had professed an interest in Native
American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native
American forms in their own works, until almost 1900,
scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.
(A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not
begin seriously to study
(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not
begun seriously studying
(C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics
to begin seriously to study
(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and
critics began to seriously study
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and
critics seriously began studying

can you kindly explain me why A is not correct?
OA is E,
I cannot figure it out from OG explanation

I believe because in A, "to study" is an infinitive and functions as a noun. Seriously is an adjective and thus should modify a verb or adverb, not a noun such as "to study". In E, "seriously" correctly modifies began.
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Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2010, 10:19
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
American poets had professed an interest in
Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate
Native American forms in their own works, until almost
1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to

study traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.
(A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not
begin seriously to study
(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not
begun seriously studying
(C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics
to begin seriously to study
(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and
critics began to seriously study
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and
critics seriously began studying

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
e

This is the OA Q. I would like to know:

1. is 'it' correct in the OA when there is no antecedent
2. is not until correct usage in gmat
3 usage of that here which refers to 1900
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Re: OG 12 SC 3 [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2010, 11:08
1. is 'it' correct in the OA when there is no antecedent >>> here it is expletive (placeholder) Pls refer to Sahil's notes.

Compare it to following sentences -
Ex. It is raining. / It is cold outside. / It was nice of you to come. / It is the red pen, not the black pen, that I want. >>>> No referent for it. Just a place holder.

2. is not until correct usage in gmat >>> "not until" is correct

3 usage of that here which refers to 1900 >> Right on. That refers to the moment in time - beginning of the century

gmatcracker2010 wrote:
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
American poets had professed an interest in
Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate
Native American forms in their own works, until almost
1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to

study traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.
(A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not
begin seriously to study
(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not
begun seriously studying
(C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics
to begin seriously to study
(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and
critics began to seriously study
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and
critics seriously began studying

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
e

This is the OA Q. I would like to know:

1. is 'it' correct in the OA when there is no antecedent
2. is not until correct usage in gmat
3 usage of that here which refers to 1900

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Re: OG 12 SC 3   [#permalink] 11 Jun 2010, 11:08

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