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# American productivity is declining in relation to Europes;

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American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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11 May 2010, 14:18
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American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure
(C) up to two times of West Germany’s expenditure
(D) up to two times what West Germans expended
(E) up to double the West German expenditure
what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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11 May 2010, 15:32
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TomB wrote:
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure
(C) up to two times of West Germany’s expenditure
(D) up to two times what West Germans expended
(E) up to double the West German expenditure
what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences

Energy in a. B refers to expenditure but should refer to energy.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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11 May 2010, 20:14
A = redundancy with the word expended

I like b.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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13 May 2010, 22:43
A it is.

The complete sentence should read:
"The energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice the energy expended per unit of production in West Germany."

In A, "the energy" is replaced by "that". "per unit of production" is understood and omitted.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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16 May 2010, 04:56
energy expended per unit of production in the United States is ______ . Since it is a case of parallel construction it is essential to use energy expended or a pronoun in its place. Hence I feel the choices with the word expenditure should be avoided at best. Which rules out B, C and E. Amongst A & D - A sounds perfect. My logic worked fine for me.Hope it is the correct approach though!
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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18 May 2010, 22:43
comparing A and B ....B is wordier ...in A it is already implied that this energy is from the expenditure ....so explicitly mentioning it in B is redundant
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 02:39
TomB wrote:
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure

what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences

expended in the United States... ... expended in West Germany
expended in the United States... ... of West Germany's expenditure

Option B is not so parallel as option A. You see that in A "expended" is acting as a verb, while in B "expenditure" is a noun.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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19 May 2010, 09:36
cano wrote:
TomB wrote:
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure

what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences

expended in the United States... ... expended in West Germany
expended in the United States... ... of West Germany's expenditure

Option B is not so parallel as option A. You see that in A "expended" is acting as a verb, while in B "expenditure" is a noun.

In A, ask yourself the question: what is expended in the US? the answer is "energy". But that works only because the phrases are parallel:
the energy expended in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany

If we don't have "expended" in the second phrase, then it is not so clear what is "that" referring to. And that is the problem, because we have instead "that of West Germany's expenditure". Even when you can understand the sentence, and guess what "that" is referring to, the option A does it in a much clearer way, and that is preferred in the GMAT.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2014, 05:14
TomB wrote:
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure
(C) up to two times of West Germany’s expenditure
(D) up to two times what West Germans expended
(E) up to double the West German expenditure
what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences

choice a is wrong because (see "born to women over 30 years old" from gmatprep)
the part you keep after ellipsis should be the same as the previous part

there is no"expended in " in the first half. there is only "expended per" in the first half. in other words, you can not cut off a phrase which is not continuous.

D is best
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 03:44
TomB wrote:
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany
(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure
(C) up to two times of West Germany’s expenditure
(D) up to two times what West Germans expended
(E) up to double the West German expenditure
what is the difference between option A and B?. the phrase 'that' refers to which one in bothe sentences

I want to talk more of this problem though it is not official one

the rule of ellipsis is that
- the cut off part must be present in the previous part
- the remaining part must be paralel to a phrase in the previous part so that it is clear in meaning or the remaining part must be clear in meaning but dose not need to be parallel. we need a parallelism here to make a clear meaning. of course, if both choices are clear in meaning, the choice which is parallel is possiblly considered better.

in b,c and e, energy is compared to expenditure. this is not logic

the problem in a is that a dose not meet the the 2nd standard above. the remaing part is not parallel to a phrase somewhere. there is no "expended in the us" . moreover, "expended in germany" is not clear in meaning. so this phrase is not correct.

even choice D is not clear in meaning. "what" is not clearly energy.

this question is not good. it is presented for us to discuss about comparison and ellipsis.
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 19:55
"energy expended in the U" parallels with "that expended in West Germany"
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Re: American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2017, 09:02
Hi Expert,

Please provide the reasoning to reject all the incorrect choices. I have gone through the existing posts but could not understand anything.
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American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2017, 13:45
Top Contributor
American productivity is declining in relation to Europe’s; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that expended in West Germany.

(A) as much as twice that expended in West Germany === the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice the energy expended in West Germany. ----Correct structure

(B) as much as twice that of West Germany’s expenditure ===; the energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice the energy expended in West Germany's expenditure. We can see the miscarried meaning in the highlighted phrase.

(C) up to two times of West Germany’s expenditure ---,two times is not an acceptable synonym for twice in describing quantum.

(D) up to two times what West Germans expended -- structurally also the sentence is unparallel with a passive voice in one part and an active voice in the compared factor.
(E) up to double the West German expenditure-- 'double' is mostly used as a verb; in this context 'double' is used as a noun.
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Last edited by daagh on 02 Feb 2017, 12:52, edited 1 time in total.
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American productivity is declining in relation to Europes; [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2017, 13:49
AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

Please provide the reasoning to reject all the incorrect choices. I have gone through the existing posts but could not understand anything.

In addition to daagh sir's points, please note the following errors purely due to comparison issues:

A. Correct.
The energy expended per unit of production in the United States is as much as twice that (energy) expended in West Germany.

The energy expended in USA is twice the energy expended in USA. The blue and the pink parts are parallel. ( Energy compared to energy)

B. Wrong
The energy expended in USA is twice that of West Germany’s expenditure
The pronoun "that" does not have an antecedent. ("energy of expenditure" does not make any sense.)

C. Wrong
The energy expended in USA is two times of West Germany’s expenditure.
Energy is wrongly compared to expenditure.

D. Wrong
The energy expended in USA is two times what West Germans expended.
A noun ("energy") is wrongly compared to a clause ("what West Germans expended").

E. Wrong
The energy expended in USA is double the West German expenditure.
Energy is wrongly compared to expenditure.
American productivity is declining in relation to Europes;   [#permalink] 01 Feb 2017, 13:49
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