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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than

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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 00:13
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61. Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

what's wrong with c?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: sc 61 61. Among lower-paid workers, union members are less l [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 02:22
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If you look at the question quickly, you may notice the parallelism in answer choice C with impose, require, and spend. This is a trap answer.

If you look more closely you will notice that the lower-end insurance plans do impose and require but they do not spend. It's actually the doctors that are spending. So the parallelism is as follows:

...lower-end insurance plans that impose...and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

I hope that helps!
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Re: sc 61 61. Among lower-paid workers, union members are less l [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 03:03
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Here's the soluton:

A quick look at the underlined part will tell you that it should qualify 'lower-end insurance plans' that just precedes the underlined clause. Now, let's take a look at the given options.

Options A and B both begin with 'imposing' suggesting that likelihood of non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans is a continuing/continous action. However, here, the 'likelihood' suggests tha the action is something that is desired i.e. it should be in the future tense. Hence, we can straight away rule out these options as incorrect as they have a tense mismatch.

Options C, D and E all begin with 'that'. Hence we need to check the rest of the clause to determine the correct answer choice. As the clause qualifies 'lower-end insurance plans', the various elements in the underlined clause should be parallel and in sync with this.
Let's look at the three elements in the clause -
- impose stricter limits
- require doctors to see more patients
- spend less time with each other

From these elements, it's clear that the 'lower-end insurance plans' can 'impose stricter limits' and 'require doctors to see more patients'. However 'lower-end insurance plans' cannot 'spend less time with each other'. Clearly, 'spending less time with each other' qualifies the doctor and patients. Using the gerund (ing form) of the verb 'spend' will make this refer to doctor and patients correctly.
Hence option D is the correct option which has the first two parts (impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients) parallel and the third part qualifying 'doctors' and 'patients' correctly.

Hope this helps!

Cheers.
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Re: sc 61 61. Among lower-paid workers, union members are less l [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 03:32
+ 1 D high advance of parallelism
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2014, 09:53
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 12:03
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 20:30
I know that the official questions are not debatable and D is the best answer choice.

But it has been bugging me about the concept of V-ing modifier regarding the doer of the action.

I know that the V-ing modifiers modify the whole preceeding clause by presenting cause-effect relationship.

For example, one of the official question is

Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp’s ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting adult sea turtles.

However, do the modifiers really need to make sense with the subject of the preceeding clause as well?

In this question, the intended meaning of the doer of "spending less time with each" is difinitely doctors but "doctors" is cleary not the subject.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than   [#permalink] 23 Mar 2016, 20:30
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