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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2012, 13:26
daagh wrote:
The question is whether this sentence flaunts two equal elements or three elements in the second part. If there are three, all the three should be equated and the use of a co-ordinate conjunction is proper. However, if there are only two functions and if the other function is indeed part of the second function, then conjugating with a coordinated conjunction and is wrong. The third factor entails a sub position or a modifying role using a participle.

In the given case, there is Plans imposing or that impose 1. Stricter limits and 2. (that) require doctors to see more patients. These are the only two stipulations that the plans impose. The act of spending is a corollary of seeing more patients, meaning that the doctors have to see more patients by spending less time with each patient. Therefore, all choices that use the ordinate conjunction and to conjugate spend or spending as if it is an independent function are wrong.

As per this norm, only D survives and is the right answer.

Plans imposing or plans that impose?. Note that there is no comma before imposing. Hence imposing is a straight-ahead, essential modification of plans and is acceptable. However, plans tht impose is more direct than imposing and hence preferable.

Overall, we can see how meaning is gaining predominance over other things. Given the newfound importance to meaning, this topic promises to be a good pitch.

But, jus one question here, don't u think, the comma before spending is wrong, or probably modifying the whole clause, rather than doctors alone..

And if you say, that this is better of the other choices, then in that case, E also has a similar error, of "and spending" that made me rule this out.

Pl throw light.
Raghu
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 06:15
Though I can see the logical relationship between "impose stricter limits" and "require doctors to see more patients", but the only thing that is making my head scratch is the use of ", and spending". Is it the union members who are less likely to spend less time with each other? If yes then its absolutely correct.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2012, 06:56
Hi there,

Click on the following link for detailed explanation of this question by e-gmat:

among-lower-paid-workers-union-members-are-less-likely-83575-20.html

Hope this helps.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2012, 12:24
1
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This is a bad question. You have modified D to no longer be correct. You have included a "and" after the comma which creates a clause with no noun.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2013, 10:03
it's D.

This is a meaning question.

It's the doctors that spend less time with "each"

C. and E. both imply that it's the health insurance that spends less time with "each"
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 10:26
venkat18290 wrote:
hgp2k wrote:
tejal777 wrote:
Could somebody please explain why exactly is A akward??Stuck between A and D:(

I think it is a classic case of "command subjunctive". Impose and Require are BOSSY words, which always require word "that" in the sentence. A is wrong as it lacks the word "that".

Also the use of -ing participle "imposing" wrongly suggests that union/nonunion members are imposing the stricter norms than the insurance plans. One more reason to strike out A.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Hi HGP2K

I dont think the command subjunctive is the reason for the usage of that in this sentence , because the general structure is BOSSY verb+that + subject +command subjunctive . Here the verb impose comes after "THAT" . However the 2nd reason you have stated is the perfect reason i believe. Correct me if i am wrong ?

parallelism tested here:

whenever there is a parallelism list:
All elements of the list must talk about a common topic/theme/idea.
now imposing stricter limits ...and requiring doctors to see...==>they are related to common idea .ie lower end insurance plans
but spending less time is not the requirement of lower end insurance plans...rather its a result occuring when doctors will see more patients.
so to sum up we need to parallel only requiring and imposing....but not spending is not in the list.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend ==>incorrect parallelism...spend is not supposed to be in list.moreover its not parallel too

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending ==>spending is not supposed to be parallel.

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend ===>spend is not supposed to be parallel

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending ===>correct ==>spending is result of doctors seeng more patients.

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending==>spending is coming in the parallel list hence wrong.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 10:48
venkat18290 wrote:
Correct me if i am wrong ?

Yeah..actually "imposing" would correctly modify "lower-end insurance plans" in A.

In A, the grammatical parallelism is between "are" and "spend": These are the only two "verbs" in A and since they are connected by "and", the structure of A is:

...union members are ....and spend less time with each.

So, A seems to suggest that union members spend less time with each!!

The intent is obviously that doctors spend less time with each patient.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2013, 23:02
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Here usage of "that " is clear. So a and b out.
Now consider all the parallel elements:
Lower end insurance plans that imposing stricter limits on medical services ( impose in place of imposing )
Lower end insurance plans that requiring doctors to see more patients ( require in place of requiring)
Lower end insurance plans that spend less time with each. ( doesn't sounds good as rest two items used words like require and impose. Spend doesn't match with them. So it is not the part of list.)

Open for further discussion.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2013, 08:51
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

A The absence of relative pronoun that in the original sentence leads to the meaning that union members are less likely to be enrolled in insurance plans while imposing stricter limits and requiring doctors to see. Insurance plans and not union members impose stricter limits.
B Same
C The and spend part in the end suggests that it is insurance plans and not doctors who spend less time with each patient
D Correct. The relative pronoun that clearly conveys that insurance plans impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients. Use of ing form instead of complete verb leaves no doubt that doctors see more patients thereby spending less time with each
E and spending suggest that insurance plans and not doctors spend less time with each patient
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 06:13
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I got directly to A and B.

What i really felt is that since, union members are less likely than non-unions member to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans, then what will happen...
If they are not taking the insurance plans, they will take medical expenses at their own , so they have to limit the medical services as they are not covered by lower-end insurance plans... So that got me directly A and B..

Thanks,
Jai
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2014, 06:20
Hi,

this is indeed a bad question because you have not put the right answer choices.

Answer D is that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

You have to take off the AND!

HIH
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2015, 08:41
"That" is required because it makes it clear that the insurance policy is imposing the limits i.e., "insurance plans that impose..."

So, I was deciding between D&E because i wasn't sure if
d.)the policy (1) imposes stricter limits and (2) requires doctors to see more patients
or
e.) the policy imposes stricter limits, which requires doctors to see more patients and to spend less time with each.

Then I noticed that E had a grammatical error.

if we look at the modifying phrase in E separately, there is a parallelism error.
"requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each"
this should be
"requiring doctors to see more patients and to spend less time with each." The verbs to see and to spend should have equal value in this phrase and, therefore, should be parallel.

Therefore, i chose D.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2015, 09:36
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

( D) Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

The underlined portion has two clauses....
1. that( means PLANS) impose stricter limits on medical services.
2. that ( means PLANS) require doctors to see more patients, spending( EXPLAINS HOW SPENDING LESS TIME) less time with each.

NOTE: 1. IMPOSE AND REQUIRE ARE PARALLEL........
2. SPENDING..... MODIFIES THE CLAUSE NO 2 AS ABOVE.......
3. "THAT" before clause 2, as above, is not required to be repeated and therefore it is not repeated.....

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2015, 10:07
hgp2k wrote:
tejal777 wrote:
Could somebody please explain why exactly is A akward??Stuck between A and D:(

I think it is a classic case of "command subjunctive". Impose and Require are BOSSY words, which always require word "that" in the sentence. A is wrong as it lacks the word "that".

Also the use of -ing participle "imposing" wrongly suggests that union/nonunion members are imposing the stricter norms than the insurance plans. One more reason to strike out A.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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The plural form of insurance policy is insurance policies. And similarly for insurance plan it should be insurance plans.
If that's the case then how come options C,D and E can be considered which uses singular that instead of plural those?? ('that impose stricter limits....')

Like here -

"some people believe that the benefits of the a healthy diet outweigh that of regular exercise "

..this sentence is wrong ..and it becomes correct by replacing " that of regular exercise" with " those of regular exercise"

And I understand here those requires.

I wish to know if that is singular or plural.
Thanks.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2016, 02:07
hi,

i do not understand logic behind the option D. i find option E as correct because 'requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less with each' adds additional info to 'impose stricter rules on medical services'. i feel imposing stricter medical services means to require doctors to see less patients.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2016, 06:14
TGC wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a). imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b). imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c). that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d). that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, and spending
e). that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

source: brutal SC's

My take (B), but that is wrong can anyone explain OA

The option is D is posted wrong here , correct is below :

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

Explanation for ans :

imposing and requiring is parallel . 3rd part is explanation of how doctors will see more patients.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2016, 11:09
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button - users are requested not to click the button without posting their queries.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2016, 02:20
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

in choice b, c and e, spending/spend refer grammatically to plan. this is not logic. wrong.
between b and d.
it is more logic to see that spending is part of see more patient. so, d is correct. this is hard though classical. many gmat official questions ask us to differentiate between "and do " and " comma+doing'

the main difference is the first shows two separate actions which have no time relation and meaning relation. the second show two action which are simultaneous and which have meaning relations such as reason, context, detail of main clause. honestly, I am afraid of "comma+doing" .
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2017, 02:05
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Here, understanding the meaning that "new plans require doctors to see more patients and hence consequently will be able to spend less time with each patient" is the key to answer this question..
once we get this ..we know that "spending" should be mentioned as verbing modifier after a "," immediately after the previous clause ..
Hence, option A, B, C and E are Out..

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2017, 04:02
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

imposing is not correct
as it is not presenting the result or additional information of the previous clause

A and B aare out

In C
impose ,require and spend
are made parallel to each other
however lower end insurance plans do two things
-impose....
-require......
it itself not causing to spend less time with each other
because doctors are required to spend time with more patients that is why spending less time

In E also, requiring || spending is made parallel which is not correct due to above reasons

D is the best
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than   [#permalink] 17 Apr 2017, 04:02

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