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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2011, 05:19
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OA is D.

here's the explanation by ron.
you have to realize which verbs are supposed to be parallel and which aren't. there's no grammatical formula for this; you have to examine the meaning of the sentence to figure it out.
- 'impose' (in whatever form) should be parallel to 'require' (again, in whatever form). these are two different things, both of which are aspects of the plan (= logical parallelism).
- 'spend' should not be parallel to 'see', because it functions as a modifier of 'see' (it's a descriptive adverb modifier, detailing the way in which the doctors see the patients).
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2011, 04:40
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Between C and D, I would go for D.

I found a nice explanation for this on manhattangmat site. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/amo ... t1904.html

you have to realize which verbs are supposed to be parallel and which aren't. there's no grammatical formula for this; you have to examine the meaning of the sentence to figure it out.
- 'impose' (in whatever form) should be parallel to 'require' (again, in whatever form). these are two different things, both of which are aspects of the plan (= logical parallelism).
- 'spend' should not be parallel to 'see', because it functions as a modifier of 'see' (it's a descriptive adverb modifier, detailing the way in which the doctors see the patients).

choice a: 'spend' is ungrammatical here (it has no logical subject, and isn't parallel to anything).
choice b: imposing, requiring, and spending are all parallel, implying that the insurance plans do all three of these things (an absurdity in the last case).
choice c: all three verbs are parallel again, leading to the same absurdity witnessed in choice b.
choice d (= correct): the parallelism follows the model outlined above: only the verbs that are logically parallel appear in parallel structure.
choice e: 'requiring' and 'spending' are parallel in the modifier, implying that the plans themselves spend time with patients (in addition to requiring blah blah blah). this doesn't make sense.

in choice d, you could legitimately make a case that 'spending' could modify the entire huge clause about what insurance plans do, and is therefore ambiguous. however, that's the OA, so you've learned that this problem is ok in the eyes of the gmat people. if there's a rule that can be articulated here, it's probably something along the lines of 'participial modifier applies to nearest action'.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 02:22
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If you look at the question quickly, you may notice the parallelism in answer choice C with impose, require, and spend. This is a trap answer.

If you look more closely you will notice that the lower-end insurance plans do impose and require but they do not spend. It's actually the doctors that are spending. So the parallelism is as follows:

...lower-end insurance plans that impose...and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 03:03
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Here's the soluton:

A quick look at the underlined part will tell you that it should qualify 'lower-end insurance plans' that just precedes the underlined clause. Now, let's take a look at the given options.

Options A and B both begin with 'imposing' suggesting that likelihood of non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans is a continuing/continous action. However, here, the 'likelihood' suggests tha the action is something that is desired i.e. it should be in the future tense. Hence, we can straight away rule out these options as incorrect as they have a tense mismatch.

Options C, D and E all begin with 'that'. Hence we need to check the rest of the clause to determine the correct answer choice. As the clause qualifies 'lower-end insurance plans', the various elements in the underlined clause should be parallel and in sync with this.
Let's look at the three elements in the clause -
- impose stricter limits
- require doctors to see more patients
- spend less time with each other

From these elements, it's clear that the 'lower-end insurance plans' can 'impose stricter limits' and 'require doctors to see more patients'. However 'lower-end insurance plans' cannot 'spend less time with each other'. Clearly, 'spending less time with each other' qualifies the doctor and patients. Using the gerund (ing form) of the verb 'spend' will make this refer to doctor and patients correctly.
Hence option D is the correct option which has the first two parts (impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients) parallel and the third part qualifying 'doctors' and 'patients' correctly.

Hope this helps!

Cheers.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2011, 02:50
A good qn..... that "require" should be parallel to" impose "or to "spend."..
finally require to be parallel to impose ...spending is consequence of the earlier action..while the earlier two action should be parallel because of in dependency.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2011, 07:34
among-lower-paid-workers-union-members-are-less-likely-than-78730.html

Please refer to the above link; there are 57 posts on this topic running to 3 pages. I wonder what more is required.

Let me remind freshers that most of the questions they ask these days have already been thoroughly discussed in this forum. Please avail them and benefit, becos, there are opinions from great many experts such as as Brian, Parker, and Adams et all, in those threads. Freshers shouldn't miss them.

.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2011, 06:12
Its all the matter of how you structure and look at three verbs.

E puts impose at a separate level and require and spend at a lower level together essentially meaning

imposing the stricter limit in medical services
requires doctors to see more patient and the doctor spends less time ..

And D puts it differently. here
impose the stricter limits in medical services and require doctors to see more patients
which basically force doctors to spend less time with patient.

So IMO D is better than E though I chosen E

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2012, 22:05
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

the OA is D..

Couple of questions on the structure of the sentence
- since there is no comma between plans and imposing - imposing here is modifying plans and not the whole clause?
- how do we chose between imposing and that impose (essential modifier) is there a rule of thumb
- since spending is set off by a comma is it safe to say that it is modifying the action of the doctor?

Need specific suggestions on how to decide when to use THAT and when to use -ING

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2012, 22:44
spending is not || it is subordinate to the doctors .. hence || is mantained between the first 2 parts

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2012, 09:33
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Hi,

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

mohan514 wrote:
how do we make out which is // and which is not

still not clear can you make it a bit clear please????

@mohan514: In order to find out the correct parallel list in the sentence, it is very important to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

The intended logical meaning of the sentence is:
• Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than the nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans.
• These plans:
o impose stricter limits on medical services, and
o require doctors to see more patients.
• If the doctors are required to see more patients, they will spend less time with each of them.

On this understanding, the two entities that need to be parallel in the sentence are “impose” and “require”.

Error analysis:

1. The sentence here means that the plans: a) impose stricter limits on medical services and b) require doctors: i) to see more patients, and ii) spend less time with each. This is illogical. We need an answer choice that makes “impose” and “require” parallel denoting that these are the two implications of the plans and showing “spend less time” as the outcome of the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for reason discussed above.

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Same error as in A. It’s just that now “spending” is also grammatically parallel to other entities in the list. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in A. (This sentence is grammatically sound but changes the intended meaning.)

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. Verb-ing “spending” after comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence communicates the intended meaning of the sentence.

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. Here the verb-ing modifiers “requiring” and “spending” illogically modifies the preceding clause.

devinawilliam83 wrote:
Couple of questions on the structure of the sentence
- since there is no comma between plans and imposing - imposing here is modifying plans and not the whole clause?
- how do we chose between imposing and that impose (essential modifier) is there a rule of thumb
- since spending is set off by a comma is it safe to say that it is modifying the action of the doctor?

Need specific suggestions on how to decide when to use THAT and when to use -ING

In this sentence we see the use of multiple modifiers. The first two modifiers are modifying “plans” in the form of “that” clause and the verb-ing modifier “spending” is again modifying one of the modifiers in “that” clause. Since the verb-ing modifiers can either refer to the preceding clause or the preceding noun, depending upon the placement of the comma, there is no other way to write this sentence.
If the sentence did not have the “spending” portion then using two verb-ing modifiers would have been easier. So when the verb-ing modifiers are independent of each other in a parallel list then it is alright to use them one after the other. But in a case like this question, we need to be judicious in the use of modifiers to convey the intended meaning.

1. Understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence.
2. In a parallel list, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.
3. Be vary of choices that distort the original meaning of the sentence.
4. When separated with a comma, the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding clause, when not then it modifies the preceding noun.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:

1. Level 1 - Modifiers - Verb-ing (This concept features in "Level 1 Preview Concepts" that features in free trial concepts. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify & Correct
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

Hope this helps.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2012, 13:26
daagh wrote:
The question is whether this sentence flaunts two equal elements or three elements in the second part. If there are three, all the three should be equated and the use of a co-ordinate conjunction is proper. However, if there are only two functions and if the other function is indeed part of the second function, then conjugating with a coordinated conjunction and is wrong. The third factor entails a sub position or a modifying role using a participle.

In the given case, there is Plans imposing or that impose 1. Stricter limits and 2. (that) require doctors to see more patients. These are the only two stipulations that the plans impose. The act of spending is a corollary of seeing more patients, meaning that the doctors have to see more patients by spending less time with each patient. Therefore, all choices that use the ordinate conjunction and to conjugate spend or spending as if it is an independent function are wrong.

As per this norm, only D survives and is the right answer.

Plans imposing or plans that impose?. Note that there is no comma before imposing. Hence imposing is a straight-ahead, essential modification of plans and is acceptable. However, plans tht impose is more direct than imposing and hence preferable.

Overall, we can see how meaning is gaining predominance over other things. Given the newfound importance to meaning, this topic promises to be a good pitch.

But, jus one question here, don't u think, the comma before spending is wrong, or probably modifying the whole clause, rather than doctors alone..

And if you say, that this is better of the other choices, then in that case, E also has a similar error, of "and spending" that made me rule this out.

Pl throw light.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 06:15
Though I can see the logical relationship between "impose stricter limits" and "require doctors to see more patients", but the only thing that is making my head scratch is the use of ", and spending". Is it the union members who are less likely to spend less time with each other? If yes then its absolutely correct.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2012, 06:56
Hi there,

Click on the following link for detailed explanation of this question by e-gmat:

among-lower-paid-workers-union-members-are-less-likely-83575-20.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 10:26
venkat18290 wrote:
hgp2k wrote:
tejal777 wrote:
Could somebody please explain why exactly is A akward??Stuck between A and D:(

I think it is a classic case of "command subjunctive". Impose and Require are BOSSY words, which always require word "that" in the sentence. A is wrong as it lacks the word "that".

Also the use of -ing participle "imposing" wrongly suggests that union/nonunion members are imposing the stricter norms than the insurance plans. One more reason to strike out A.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Hi HGP2K

I dont think the command subjunctive is the reason for the usage of that in this sentence , because the general structure is BOSSY verb+that + subject +command subjunctive . Here the verb impose comes after "THAT" . However the 2nd reason you have stated is the perfect reason i believe. Correct me if i am wrong ?

parallelism tested here:

whenever there is a parallelism list:
All elements of the list must talk about a common topic/theme/idea.
now imposing stricter limits ...and requiring doctors to see...==>they are related to common idea .ie lower end insurance plans
but spending less time is not the requirement of lower end insurance plans...rather its a result occuring when doctors will see more patients.
so to sum up we need to parallel only requiring and imposing....but not spending is not in the list.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend ==>incorrect parallelism...spend is not supposed to be in list.moreover its not parallel too

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending ==>spending is not supposed to be parallel.

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend ===>spend is not supposed to be parallel

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending ===>correct ==>spending is result of doctors seeng more patients.

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending==>spending is coming in the parallel list hence wrong.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 10:48
venkat18290 wrote:
Correct me if i am wrong ?

Yeah..actually "imposing" would correctly modify "lower-end insurance plans" in A.

In A, the grammatical parallelism is between "are" and "spend": These are the only two "verbs" in A and since they are connected by "and", the structure of A is:

...union members are ....and spend less time with each.

So, A seems to suggest that union members spend less time with each!!

The intent is obviously that doctors spend less time with each patient.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2013, 23:02
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Here usage of "that " is clear. So a and b out.
Now consider all the parallel elements:
Lower end insurance plans that imposing stricter limits on medical services ( impose in place of imposing )
Lower end insurance plans that requiring doctors to see more patients ( require in place of requiring)
Lower end insurance plans that spend less time with each. ( doesn't sounds good as rest two items used words like require and impose. Spend doesn't match with them. So it is not the part of list.)

Open for further discussion.

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2013, 08:51
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

A The absence of relative pronoun that in the original sentence leads to the meaning that union members are less likely to be enrolled in insurance plans while imposing stricter limits and requiring doctors to see. Insurance plans and not union members impose stricter limits.
B Same
C The and spend part in the end suggests that it is insurance plans and not doctors who spend less time with each patient
D Correct. The relative pronoun that clearly conveys that insurance plans impose stricter limits and require doctors to see more patients. Use of ing form instead of complete verb leaves no doubt that doctors see more patients thereby spending less time with each
E and spending suggest that insurance plans and not doctors spend less time with each patient

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 06:13
tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I got directly to A and B.

What i really felt is that since, union members are less likely than non-unions member to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans, then what will happen...
If they are not taking the insurance plans, they will take medical expenses at their own , so they have to limit the medical services as they are not covered by lower-end insurance plans... So that got me directly A and B..

Thanks,
Jai
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2014, 06:20
Hi,

this is indeed a bad question because you have not put the right answer choices.

Answer D is that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

You have to take off the AND!

HIH
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2014, 11:22
My doubt in question answer about the use of Comma+ verb ing
So far we know comma+verb ing refers to preceding clause or sub of preceding clause.

But here "spending" refers to "Doctors" which is not the subject of preceding clause.
In exam time only depending on that issue I may eliminate the right choice D.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union   [#permalink] 05 Oct 2014, 11:22

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