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# Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union

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VP
Joined: 09 Jul 2007
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Location: London
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2007, 11:18
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Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

[Reveal] Spoiler:
I see such constructions very often, but still cant crack them correctly, do you know the trick, the rule or sm else that can help in such questions? ?[/quote]

It is all about parallelism and modifiers,
C or E
that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Vyshak on 20 Jun 2017, 23:18, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected choice D
Senior Manager
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 325
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2007, 11:13
OlgaN wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a). imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b). imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c). that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d). that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, and spending
e). that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I see such constructions very often, but still cant crack them correctly, do you know the trick, the rule or sm else that can help in such questions? ?

pls change the (D) choice.................and should not be there

D. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

In this case............(D) is the best
Manager
Joined: 19 Aug 2007
Posts: 202
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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19 May 2008, 15:44
UMB wrote:
D

how doctors can see more patients ,of course, by spending less time with each of this patients.
C is distraction .HOw can Insurance plan or medical service can "spend" less time (B,C,E out). "Spend" in choice A seems to be parallel with "be enrolled", if so it is not what the sentence intends to say.

I can see what is wrong with each answer choice, but I am still confused as to how the last portion in D) is clearly referring to doctors:

'..lower- end insurance plans[that impose stricter limits on medical services], [requiring doctors to see more patients], and spending less time with each'

'that impose...' is referring to 'insurance plans'
'requiring doctors..' is referring to the action in the previous clause

so, how is, ',and spending less time with each' referring to doctors?
the comma is used to isolate the modifier 'requiring..' and therefore also isolate 'doctors'?
and now, the last portion now seems to refer back to 'insurance plans'???

thanks!
Director
Joined: 12 Jul 2008
Posts: 515
Schools: Wharton
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 10:17
goalsnr wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

a. imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
b. imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
c. that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
d. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
e. that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I'd go with d.

insurance plans that impose...and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.

a. the list should be the first two items, because insurance plans don't spend time with patients; incorrect usage of the verbs in the list -- you need "that" + infinitives
b. list is now parallel but includes spending less time with each; incorrect usage of the verbs in the list
c. list is now parallel but includes spending less time with each
d. correct
e. list isn't parallel, among other problems
Director
Joined: 01 Jan 2008
Posts: 622
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 17:32
goalsnr wrote:
iamcartic wrote:
I think D is perfect - "that" is required and D corrects the modifier issue.

How do we know "that" is required or not?

in this situation you have to use "that" because if you use "imposing" then you'd be modifying the whole sentence instead of the low-end insurance plan.
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Nov 2006
Posts: 266
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 17:35
goalsnr wrote:
iamcartic wrote:
I think D is perfect - "that" is required and D corrects the modifier issue.

How do we know "that" is required or not?

If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D
VP
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 1342
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 17:45
Ashwin_Mohan wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
iamcartic wrote:
I think D is perfect - "that" is required and D corrects the modifier issue.

How do we know "that" is required or not?

If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Nov 2006
Posts: 266
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 19:05
I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.

In your example, I agree imposing modifies the insurance plans(right next to each other....), but what does requiring modify??? Again is it union members or the plan?
Now when we use that, it logically divides this ambiguity. In this case, require and impose can only modify the word just before 'that', ie insurance plans.
Senior Manager
Joined: 18 Jun 2007
Posts: 288
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 19:19
Quote:
If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

Quote:
I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.

First, IMO participle phrase modifies whole previous clause. In the given sentence, participle pharse imposing stricter limits.... will modify whole previous clause Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans while 'that' modifies the last (connecting ) noun ( insurance plans)......makes sense? I guess so.

second, Spending modifies doctors... no spending doesn't modifies docters here, but modifies require doctors to see more patients, spending

I guess this will help.
VP
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Posts: 1342
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 21:33
rishi2377 wrote:
Quote:
If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

Quote:
I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.

First, IMO participle phrase modifies whole previous clause. In the given sentence, participle pharse imposing stricter limits.... will modify whole previous clause Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans while 'that' modifies the last (connecting ) noun ( insurance plans)......makes sense? I guess so.

second, Spending modifies doctors... no spending doesn't modifies docters here, but modifies require doctors to see more patients, spending

I guess this will help.

So do you think "Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients." is grammatically correct?
Senior Manager
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Posts: 266
Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2008, 07:48
rishi2377 wrote:
Quote:
If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

Quote:
I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.

First, IMO participle phrase modifies whole previous clause. In the given sentence, participle pharse imposing stricter limits.... will modify whole previous clause Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans while 'that' modifies the last (connecting ) noun ( insurance plans)......makes sense? I guess so.

second, Spending modifies doctors... no spending doesn't modifies docters here, but modifies require doctors to see more patients, spending

I guess this will help.

Hmm....Can you explain a little more....

Spending....needs to modify a noun. Who is spending?? Doctors....I am not sure how spending can modify an entire phrase....
Someone or something spends time....
Am I missing something?
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 13:33
Ashwin_Mohan wrote:
rishi2377 wrote:
Quote:
If there is no that, then it looks as though the union members impose the stricter limits on medical services and not the plans itself. Hence a and b are out.
Impose and restrict follows subjunctive rule.
Spending modifies doctors
Hence D

Quote:
I was wondering if "imposing" can be used in the sentence. I agree it messes the doctor and time part.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients.
- If we had a sentence like this it would be grmmatically correct?Thats what I was trying to understand.

First, IMO participle phrase modifies whole previous clause. In the given sentence, participle pharse imposing stricter limits.... will modify whole previous clause Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans while 'that' modifies the last (connecting ) noun ( insurance plans)......makes sense? I guess so.

second, Spending modifies doctors... no spending doesn't modifies docters here, but modifies require doctors to see more patients, spending

I guess this will help.

Hmm....Can you explain a little more....

Spending....needs to modify a noun. Who is spending?? Doctors....I am not sure how spending can modify an entire phrase....
Someone or something spends time....
Am I missing something?

yes in my opinion, spending does modifies the phrase require doctors to see more patients

I will try to explain.
How docters to see more patients? 'by' spending less time on each patient.
anyway, lets see, 'spending.....each' is a participle phrase right?
it ought to modify somethings now, it wont modify the last noun 'patient' for sure
now, it is a present participle and if it is modifying docters, it will mean that 'docters are currently spending less time' which is not the case....now, since it is modifying the phrase 'require docters....'
it means that docters will be seeing more patients by spending less time with each. it is modifying what docters will be doing not what docters are....got the difference?

I dont know if I've been able to explain it in a right way since I am not good in explaining (my gf will vouch for that). It is 0200 in the morning and I am sleepy otherwise I would have given some examples as well. I am curious to know the opinions of English gurus on GMAT club.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 13:49
The reason "imposing" is wrong is that the following contruction is considered WRONG:

1) preposition + noun + present participle

Eg: James jumped over the cat speeding at 30 km.

In this sentence, is "speeding" modifying "the cat" or "James"?? We have "the cat" right after the preposition "over", and then "the cat" is followed by the present participle "speeding."

In option A, this is what we have:

in lower-end insurance plans imposing

Is "imposing" modifying "lower-end insurance plans" or is it modifying "union members" or "non union members"????
The construction "preposition + noun + present participle" creates this confusion.

One more note: Unlike the past participle, the present participle doesn't have to be placed right next to the noun that it modifies. The present participle can be placed far away from it referent noun, which is why "imposing" here creates an issue because we have 3 different nouns behind it.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 16:03
yeah me too. I try to find as many rules as I can. Also, when you narrow your choices to 2 answer choices and believe that you tackled the grammar issues, this is when conciseness and proper logic should be applied. Sometimes, you might get too caught up with the grammar rules that you wouldn't even read the given sentence to understand it properly. you'll be surprised how that can also help you a lot.

would someone eliminate answer choice E for me? I also chose D as my answer, but I would like a more solid explanation for eliminating answer choice E. The reason I eliminated answer choice E is that I felt that it's not logical that "medical sevices" can actually do the "spending time." Is this correct?
thanks
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 17:58
Though D is the best answere but if we have the following choice (say F)

that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spend

Then what will be the answere D or F.

I say this because isnt "see" and "spend" paralled rarther than "see" and "spending"

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2008, 19:58
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tarek99 wrote:
yeah me too. I try to find as many rules as I can. Also, when you narrow your choices to 2 answer choices and believe that you tackled the grammar issues, this is when conciseness and proper logic should be applied. Sometimes, you might get too caught up with the grammar rules that you wouldn't even read the given sentence to understand it properly. you'll be surprised how that can also help you a lot.

would someone eliminate answer choice E for me? I also chose D as my answer, but I would like a more solid explanation for eliminating answer choice E. The reason I eliminated answer choice E is that I felt that it's not logical that "medical sevices" can actually do the "spending time." Is this correct?
thanks

In D : "requiring " and " spending " modifies plans
1. It would read somethink like this - "plan requiring doctors to ...." - this makes sense
2. It would read somethink like this - "plan spending time with each...." - this makes no sense. It has a logical error because of a misplaced modifier
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2009, 00:03
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I would go with option D

A and B are clearly rejected, we are left with C, D and E.
the second part of the sentence gives 2 the features of the insurance plan:
- Imposing stricter limits on medical services
- require doctors to see more patients.
because seeing more patients in less time indicates spending less time with each, we don't need to separate the two by 'and' because they invariably mean the same.
So, the 2 features are separated by 'and' and the following by a comma.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 19:17
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

E is wrong because it reads as if its the stricter limits on medical services that are requiring doctors to see more patients versus D, which is correct, distinguish that its the lower end insurance plans that require doctors to see more patients. I didn't get it at first after carefully reading it I was able to see where the problem lies.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 03:21
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tenaman10 wrote:
Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Low-end Insurance plans only impose stricter limits, however it cannot command doctor to see more patients or less. All the above tells the same except for E, which says that due to stricter limits and not due to low end insurance plans, doctors have to see more patients Similarly, it is not Insurance plans that spend less time, but its the doctor who spends less time.

Hence, IMO E.
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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2009, 10:06
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Hi,
here 'that impose' is better than 'imposing' as 'that' relates to the word immediately preceding it
therefore A and B are out....

now there are 3 activities

a)impose stricter limits on medical services
b) require doctors to see more patients, and
c)spend less time with each.
in these a and b are independent and c is dependent on b....

C makes all a ,b ,c independent...... E makes b and c dependent on a..
only D makes a and b independent and c dependent on b.. therefore D is the ans...
hope i have been of some help..

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Re: Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non union   [#permalink] 06 Sep 2009, 10:06

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