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# Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co

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Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 13:27
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Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

1. It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is

(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs is true?

(A) Older production technologies cannot be adapted so as to reduce production of these outputs as waste products.
(B) Under the most recent environmental regulations, industrial plants are no longer permitted to produce these outputs.
(C) Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance cost they impose.
(D) Many older plants have developed innovative technological processes that reduce the amounts of these outputs generated as waste products.
(E) Since the production processes that generate these outputs are less costly than alternative processes, these less expensive processes are sometimes adopted despite their acknowledged environmental hazards.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

3. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the statement about large plants (lines 12-17) [Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.] to the passage as a whole?

(A) It presents a hypothesis that is disproved later in the passage.
(B) It highlights an opposition between two ideas mentioned in the passage.
(C) It provides examples to support a claim made earlier in the passage.
(D) It exemplifies a misconception mentioned earlier in the passage.
(E) It draws an analogy between two situations described in the passage.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(B) illustrate varying levels of compliance with environmental regulation among different corporations
(C) describe the various alternatives to traditional methods of environmental management
(D) advocate increased corporate compliance with environmental regulation
(E) correct a common misconception about the impact of environmental regulations

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Oct 2017, 07:28, edited 4 times in total.
Updated Topic and OAs

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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 13:40
I initially picked B, but after reading the passage again, changed my mind into A.
My reasoning is like this.
If older production technologies can be adapted to reduce production of sulfur dioxide, who doesn't modify thier production when there is a regulation that imposes extensive compliance costs on companies that generate sulfur dioxide? In other words, the regulation affects older productions and new production evenly because older production can modify their production. However, since older production cannot be adapted to reduce production of sulfur dioxide, the older production is disadvenataged by the regulation just as the passage explained.

To be sure, I looked up this question and found a lot of people insist the answer for this Q is C.
I can see why those people picked C.

I'd like to hear people's opinions on this issue.

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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2012, 05:29
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My take BDE , cant understand why its C for the 2nd ,as the passage starts with Among the myths taken as...... In reality....., so actually its clarifying a misconception. A myth is different from the reality and hence i thought its a misconception.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2012, 14:14
in 6:49 mins. My take BCE.
1st Question: Line 22-24 gives us the clue. B is correct
For 2nd Question Line 10 gives us the clue. It is listing few examples...So option C is correct here.
3rd one: Pretty evident from the opening sentence. E is correct
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2013, 20:41
This is a passage from OG 13. Everyone can check the page 388. OA here is C. The passage only mentions that new regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs and that old burners still generate SO2 and NO, this is the idea of C. We can find in nowhere whether these burners can be adapted to meet the new requirements. Hence, A is out.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2014, 21:08
Can anyone answer the below question?. it is based on the same passage

It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is

(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2014, 09:29
Well, let me try..

Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; "on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size".

There is a contrast being presented and it states that Small firms can sometimes dodge the provisions such as permit or other requirements because of its SIZE.
Now, since its an inference question, and a contrast is presented , we can judiciously infer that LARGE firms wont be able to dodge these regulations and therefore, they may have to pay more compliance costs as compared to small size firms.

Any thoughts ?
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2014, 23:11
i do not understand how readers are suppose to figure out line 18-26 when the passage on left side has less than 20 lines.
can we please make sure to preserve the formatting when we copy it from some source to gmat club website ?
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31 Dec 2014, 23:11
i do not understand how readers are suppose to figure out line 18-26 when the passage on left side has less than 20 lines.
can we please make sure to preserve the formatting when we copy it from some source to gmat club website ?
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2016, 06:05
I chose A for Q55. This is how I interpret A and E.

(A)
environmental management problem = uneven environmental regulation costs.
solutions = how to achieve competitive edge in the uneven costs condition (environmental managers can help their companies ...).

(E)
only mentioned misconception, but failed to address the last part of the passage (anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically).

What takeaway / realignment of GMAT world logic should I accept here?

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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2016, 11:23
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source: OG13

Q53. Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the Line belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.

According to the passage, which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs is true?
A. Older production technologies cannot be adapted so as to reduce production of these outputs as waste products.
B. Under the most recent environmental regulations, industrial plants are no longer permitted to produce these outputs.
C. Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.
D. Many older plants have developed innovative technological processes that reduce the amounts of these outputs generated as waste products.
E. Since the production processes that generate these outputs are less costly than alternative processes, these less expensive processes are sometimes adopted despite their acknowledged environmental hazards.

text from passage wrote:
New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

So they regulations are in general and they are applicable to violators.

But option C says that

Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.

but there is nowhere written that Some plants still do it or whether companies stopped doing so after the regulations are imposed.

So how can C be correct choice.
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2016, 12:41
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Nevernevergiveup wrote:
source: OG13

Q53. Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.

According to the passage, which of the following statements about sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs is true?
A. Older production technologies cannot be adapted so as to reduce production of these outputs as waste products.
B. Under the most recent environmental regulations, industrial plants are no longer permitted to produce these outputs.
C. Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.
D. Many older plants have developed innovative technological processes that reduce the amounts of these outputs generated as waste products.
E. Since the production processes that generate these outputs are less costly than alternative processes, these less expensive processes are sometimes adopted despite their acknowledged environmental hazards.

text from passage wrote:
New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

So they regulations are in general and they are applicable to violators.

But option C says that

Although these outputs are environmentally hazardous, some plants still generate them as waste products despite the high compliance costs they impose.

but there is nowhere written that Some plants still do it or whether companies stopped doing so after the regulations are imposed.

So how can C be correct choice.

Dear Nevernevergiveup,

I'm happy to respond. Here's the relevant part of the passage:
Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products.

First of all, the first sentence quoted here is a general-point sentence, and the sentence that follows it is an example sentence. Even if the second sentence were not clear, we would expect it to be about older companies "still continuing" to do something that is now regulated.

In fact, the second sentence is crystal clear. The use of the present participle "using" implies present action, and the adverb "still" reinforces this interpretation. The fact that the paragraph talks about "companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs" means, of course, that right now there are "companies" that "still use older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs." This is stated clearly and unambiguously.

Therefore (C) is absolutely undeniable as the OA.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2017, 23:38
Hi mikemcgarry or other experts,
I was confused with choice D in Question 54
54. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the statement about large plants (lines 18-26) to the passage as a whole?
(A) It presents a hypothesis that is disproved later in the passage.
(B) It highlights an opposition between two ideas mentioned in the passage.
(C) It provides examples to support a claim made earlier in the passage.
(D) It exemplifies a misconception mentioned earlier in the passage.
(E) It draws an analogy between two situations described in the passage.

IMO , "addition", the first word in paragraph 2, implies same level as the content preceding "addition".
here is an example which proves the main idea, so I view the comparison of larger company and smaller as an example to prove the main idea.

have a nice day
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 12:32
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zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry or other experts,
I was confused with choice D in Question 54
54. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the statement about large plants (lines 18-26) to the passage as a whole?
(A) It presents a hypothesis that is disproved later in the passage.
(B) It highlights an opposition between two ideas mentioned in the passage.
(C) It provides examples to support a claim made earlier in the passage.
(D) It exemplifies a misconception mentioned earlier in the passage.
(E) It draws an analogy between two situations described in the passage.

IMO , "addition", the first word in paragraph 2, implies same level as the content preceding "addition".
here is an example which proves the main idea, so I view the comparison of larger company and smaller as an example to prove the main idea.

have a nice day
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Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond.

You are correct that "additionally" continues the line of argument. You are correct that the passage began with stating a misconception, then stating what is really true. We got one example, and after the word "additionally," we get another example. But these are examples of what?? Let's think about this carefully.

Misconception: Environmental regulations have the same effect on all companies.
Truth: Environmental regulations have vastly different effects on different companies.

Example #1: location can affect how much or little regulatory attention a company gets
Example #2: size matters: big vs. small companies also are affected differently

Those are examples of what? They are examples of how different companies are affected by environmental regulations in different ways. In other words, they are examples of the "Truth" that we listed above. They are NOT examples of the "misconception"--in fact, they are all counterexamples to the "misconception." Choice (D) has it exactly backwards! These are NOT examples of the misconception: quite to the contrary, they are examples demonstrating that the misconception is wrong.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2017, 11:54
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Expert's post
gamerguy0074 wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

can you give your inputs on question 52?
why E is incorrect?

Thanks

Dear gamerguy0074,

I'm happy to respond.

Here is Q 52:
52. It can be inferred from the passage that a large plant might have to spend more than a similar but smaller plant on environmental compliance because the larger plant is
(A) more likely to attract attention from local regulators
(B) less likely to be exempt from permit and reporting requirements
(C) less likely to have regulatory costs passed on to it by companies that supply its raw materials
(D) more likely to employ older production technologies
(E) more likely to generate wastes that are more environmentally damaging than those generated by smaller plants

Remember that inference on the GMAT RC (and on CR) means that something is not directly stated but that it's absolutely undeniable, based on what is explicitly stated. See:

For Q52, this is the crucial sentence from the prompt:
Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.

If smaller companies, by virtue of their small size, are exempt from permit or reporting requirements, then it must be true that large companies would be subject to these requirements. Answer = (B)

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most co [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 07:27
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eybrj2 wrote:
Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental managers of most corporations is the belief that environmental regulations affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disadvantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger non-compliant competitors is less likely to attract the attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older production technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes that were not regulated when the technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste products. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipating regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regulations will affect their companies specifically.
3. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the statement about large plants (lines 12-17) [Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.] to the passage as a whole?

(A) It presents a hypothesis that is disproved later in the passage.
(B) It highlights an opposition between two ideas mentioned in the passage.
(C) It provides examples to support a claim made earlier in the passage.
(D) It exemplifies a misconception mentioned earlier in the passage.
(E) It draws an analogy between two situations described in the passage.

Passage: Environmental Regulations

Question: Passage Structure

The Simple Story

EMs (environmental managers) mistakenly believe that environmental regulations affect all competitors equally. This author asserts that the effects are unequal. Various examples are given; then the passage concludes that EMs would do a better job if they paid attention to how regulations affect their own specific companies, not just the industry at large.

Note that this passage follows a classic structure: The author disagrees with what some or most people believe, provides evidence or examples to support that disagreement, and then possibly discusses some consequence or follow-on analysis of the true situation.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: Myth: most EMs think env regs affect all equally.
BUT diff firms affected differently

P2: (eg)
EMs = better job, comp adv if realize this

Note (eg) is an abbreviation for “examples are given at this point in the passage.”

Step 1: Identify the Question

The question asks you to determine the relationship of a particular statement to the passage as a whole. This language signals a hybrid question about the structure of the overall passage. You’ll need to understand the specific text referenced in the context of the primary purpose or overall point of the passage.

Step 2: Find the Support

First, remind yourself of the overall point of the passage: contrary to popular belief, environmental regulations typically apply unequally to companies in the same industry, resulting in competitive advantages or disadvantages.

Next, review the referenced text in lines 12 through 17:

Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or reporting requirements by virtue of their size.”

This statement indicates particular advantages that a plant may enjoy based on its size. Larger plants can spread costs across their larger revenue base, so per-unit costs are lower. At the same time, larger plants might be subject to certain requirements that smaller plants don’t even have to follow in the first place.

This information serves to support the author’s main idea: these regulations can apply unequally and therefore result in advantages or disadvantages for different companies.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The cited text is not disproved later in the passage. In fact, the cited text serves as support for the author’s main point.

(B) The passage does convey some opposition: there is a common misconception, on one hand, and the author’s conflicting view, on the other hand. The cited text, however, does not highlight the opposition between the two ideas. Rather, it provides support specifically for the author’s view.

(C) CORRECT. This choice matches the predicted answer. The referenced sentence does provide examples that serve to support the author’s main claim (which was indeed made earlier in the passage).

(D) The misconception is that regulations affect all competitors equally. The text in lines 12 to 17 does not support that misconception; rather, that text contradicts the misconception.

(E) The purpose of the cited text is to provide support for the author’s main point. This text does not draw an analogy between two situations described elsewhere in the passage.
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