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# An economic recession can result from a lowering of

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 11:24
I reproduce what the Manhattan link has in its print. You may see that the answer choices are not the same, as has been claimed. Answer choice C in Manhattan is the same as answer choice E in gmatclub

A
Quote:
n economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

b a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

d. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

e. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Let's compare the choices

Manhattan C
c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates

gmatclub E

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates

gmatclub C

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

You may appreciate that the choices are significantly different from each other of both forums ; The gmatclub e is the verbatim ditto of Manhattan C. The correct answer in Manhattan is C. and therefore the same version that is the gmatclub should be right answer , because there is no change in the stimulus.

2. Yes, in certain situations the relative pronoun ‘which’ may refer to a distant noun other than what it touches; Those situations must be thoroughly understood, before resorting to them at will. I might accentuate that this thread is not the one that has those conditions and therefore unfit to apply those exemptions.

Hope I am clear
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01 Oct 2012, 14:18
chandru42 wrote:
one thing i quite clear which can not refer to a phrase

for-smaller-retailers-and-web-sites-which-pay-regular-mail-139675.html

In this question, which is used to refer a (subject) noun phrase
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03 Oct 2012, 02:33
+1C

Since the contention is basically between C and E, I would like to take only these two options.

The events take place in the following manner

drop in investment ------ falling employment rates ------ cutbacks in consumer spending ------- cycle of layoffs ------ lower employment rates

1 2 3 4 5

The statement wants to convey the cyclical nature of the process. Therefore each single act should lead to the another single act i.e. 1 lead to 2 lead 3 lead to 4 lead to 5

Option C and E differs in this respect
In option C, “starting” modify cutbacks whereas in option E “starting” acts as a verb for “that”. I do not find this option well structured

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2014, 08:34
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 12:42
I think the answer is E

Sentence structure for Meaning Analysis:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates
• triggered by a drop in investment,
• which causes people to cut consumer spending
• and starts a cycle of layoffs
• leading back to even lower employment rates.

Error Analysis
This sentence tells us about economic recession and its cause.

I. Here ‘’triggered’’ (cause to move) logically & grammatically modifies ‘’employment rates’’.
a. Logic: employment rates are caused to move by a drop in investment
b. Grammar: Past Participle Modifier modifies the preceding Noun

II. Grammatically ‘’which’’ modifies ‘’a drop in investment’’.
a. Think logically, what causes people (all people) to cut consumer spending?- An economic recession or a drop in investment. Of course, an economic recession. Since ‘’causes’’ shows the result of economic recession, we should use ‘’(with comma)causing’’ instead of ‘’which causes’’.
b. Grammar: ‘’causes’’ is incorrect because it modifies ‘’Employment rates’’. (should use ‘’cause’’ instead of ‘’causes’’)

III. This portion (which causes people to cut consumer spending) has another error: redundancy (people & consumer because consumers are people)

IV. Logically “starts a cycle of layoffs” (layoff means termination of employees) shows another result of “an economic recession”. (So we should use “starting” instead of “starts”. Grammatically “starts” is incorrect because it modifies “Employment rates”. (should use “start” instead of starts)

V. ‘’leading’’ logically & grammatically modifies ‘’layoffs’’
i. Logic: “layoffs” (termination of employees) lead interest rate to be lower
ii. Grammar: “Verb+ing Modifier” (without comma) modifies the preceding Noun
VI. This portion has another error: redundancy (“back” & “even lower”). Because “leading to even lower employment rates” means interest rates become further lower. So no need to use “back”.

In summary, we have following errors
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

Process of Elimination

A• a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes
people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

B• a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes
people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

C• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Parallelism Error : “which causes” and “starting” are not parallel (should be “causing” “starting” because both are the results of an economic recession )
D• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing
people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
1. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
2. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
3. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

E• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2015, 01:43
BUMPING this in order to get more clarity on this problem. What's the correct answer C or E?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2015, 01:43
BUMPING this in order to get more clarity on this problem. What's the correct answer C or E?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2016, 02:47
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2016, 02:47

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