It is currently 24 Feb 2018, 02:27

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t

 post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics
Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 13 Jul 2006
Posts: 64
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Sep 2009, 04:54
2
KUDOS
kairoshan wrote:
I also thought the answer would be E, but the brutal SC thread shows that OA is C. Does anybody have a clue? I also have other brutal SC thread problems that I am not clear with OAs, and couldn't find clear explanations from previous thread because some thread shows different opinions. So I decided to post all the confusing ones here again, so please feel free to leave your comments.

After a more careful analysis, i feel that OA is correct. I initially chose E but now I think C is correct.

E is not correct because of incorrect usage of "that". "that"should refer to singular noun. In E, "that" is referring to employment rates.
E would have been correct without "that are"

C - Correct
falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

"falling inteterst rates triggered by a drop in investment" is correct. Identifier "that" is not required to refer back to the interest rates. "THAT" is used as identifier to refer back to ONE rate among many rates.

The use of "which" is also correct in the sentence.
It is a general understanding that which refers to the WORD preceded by ",". In this case "which" seems to refer to investment. BUT the correct use of which is to refer back to the NOUN/NOUN CLAUSE preceding the ","
Here "which" is refering to the noun clause "drop in investment" and not "investment.

Nice question. It took me a day of figure out why C is correct. kudos for you.
_________________

Consider kudos for a good explanation

Manager
Joined: 11 Aug 2009
Posts: 121
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Sep 2009, 08:00
duttarupam wrote:
kairoshan wrote:
I also thought the answer would be E, but the brutal SC thread shows that OA is C. Does anybody have a clue? I also have other brutal SC thread problems that I am not clear with OAs, and couldn't find clear explanations from previous thread because some thread shows different opinions. So I decided to post all the confusing ones here again, so please feel free to leave your comments.

After a more careful analysis, i feel that OA is correct. I initially chose E but now I think C is correct.

E is not correct because of incorrect usage of "that". "that"should refer to singular noun. In E, "that" is referring to employment rates.
E would have been correct without "that are"

C - Correct
falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

"falling inteterst rates triggered by a drop in investment" is correct. Identifier "that" is not required to refer back to the interest rates. "THAT" is used as identifier to refer back to ONE rate among many rates.

The use of "which" is also correct in the sentence.
It is a general understanding that which refers to the WORD preceded by ",". In this case "which" seems to refer to investment. BUT the correct use of which is to refer back to the NOUN/NOUN CLAUSE preceding the ","
Here "which" is refering to the noun clause "drop in investment" and not "investment.

Nice question. It took me a day of figure out why C is correct. kudos for you.

I am not quite clear with your explanation.
That is a relative conjuntion, which can take either a singular noun or a plural noun.
Manager
Joined: 21 May 2009
Posts: 131
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Sep 2009, 23:41
2
KUDOS
i still dont feel C is the answer i opt E

there is a similar Q with diff options posted in
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html

for this Q the OA is C (agree with it)
may be the OA we are refering to is for this Question. please look the Question and confirm
Manager
Joined: 21 May 2009
Posts: 131
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Sep 2009, 23:42
one thing i quite clear which can not refer to a phrase
Manager
Joined: 22 Jul 2009
Posts: 191
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Oct 2009, 18:50
The Brutal SC document is great; it really has brutal questions. But it also has typos (have gone over the first 35 and found typos on q11 & q21), and some very poor questions.

This question is horrible. I hope that not too many people are falling into the trap of trying to justify a bad answer.

Chandru42: thanks for finding that Manhattan GMAT post. It has the good version of this question.

It is clear that the answer could only be C or E. But both are wrong.

C
-> "which cause" is unclear. I do not agree with the previous poster. It could refer to either "employment rates" or "drop in investment". It is "falling employment rates" that cause the "cutbacks in consumer spending".
-> "cutbacks in consumer spending" do not start "a cycle of layoffs"; "falling employment rates" do.
-> "which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs" lacks parallelism.

E
-> "that are triggered by" is wordy
-> "leading" should be replaced by "that lead to"; doing so would add clarity to the sentence.

E is wordy. C is ambiguous and distorts the meaning of the sentence. If forced to choose between C or E, I would go for E.

Here's the answer C provided in the Manhattan post: "c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates." This question was taken from a Manhattan GMAT CAT.
_________________

Please kudos if my post helps.

Manager
Joined: 22 Jul 2009
Posts: 191
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Oct 2009, 06:38
riteshbindal wrote:
Is it E?

It is neither C or E. But OA is C.

See http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
_________________

Please kudos if my post helps.

SVP
Affiliations: HEC
Joined: 28 Sep 2009
Posts: 1634
Concentration: Economics, Finance
GMAT 1: 730 Q48 V44
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Oct 2009, 08:01
The word "which" modifies the word directly in front of it. In this case, the phrase "which cause cutbacks in consumer spending" modifies "investment." This doesn't sound right at all.

It seems that the Manhattan version, a clear and easy question, does not match the Brutal SC version. This discrepancy, I think, explains the confusion surrounding this problem.

Nice observation, guys!
_________________
Manager
Joined: 18 Jul 2009
Posts: 51
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Nov 2009, 01:35
That vs Which

Both of these sentences are correct in GMAT :
· Please go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.
· Please go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.

· Please go into the room and get me the big book, which is mine.

In this sentence, the clause which is mine is "extra" because the information "the big book" is
enough to identify which book it is that you want. We can assume that there is only one big book
in the room.
· Please go into the room and get me the big book that is mine.

In this sentence, the clause that is mine is "necessary" because the information "the big book" is
NOT enough to identify which book it is that you want--it is probably the case that there are
several big books in the room, so I need to add the information "that is mine" to identify which
book it is that I want

Now coming back to problem

E.falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Here That is referring to Specific type of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

It also means other employments rates are not triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

so E is Illogical.

If you consider C

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Here the clause which cause cutbacks is extra even if u omit which its not gonna affect the sentence.
Manager
Joined: 29 Oct 2009
Posts: 63
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Nov 2009, 02:00
The ques given here has "WHICH" in option C (thats how it differs from manhattan's quesas posted by powerka) and as we know "which" cannot refer to a phrase so is wrong...

E is correct ans.
Manager
Joined: 21 Jan 2010
Posts: 220
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 May 2010, 21:39
This is a tough question. Great discussion!
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 951
Location: Singapore
Concentration: General Management, Finance
Schools: Chicago Booth - Class of 2015
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 06:04
1
KUDOS
13
This post was
BOOKMARKED
This one nailed me today, I rarely get SC wrong. I will love if any of the Manhattan Instructors will pitch in and explain the OA to the maximum possible extent.

1. especially the use of "which"
2. I believe option C has SV disagreement since "cycle" is singular and should use "leads".

People,
please use your judgement not mine !

Reopening the question.
An economic recession can result from a lowering of
employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which
causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of
layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates
.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment,
which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment
rates.
Retired Moderator
Status: The last round
Joined: 18 Jun 2009
Posts: 1279
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V34
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 07:04
nusmavrik wrote:
This one nailed me today, I rarely get SC wrong. I will love if any of the Manhattan Instructors will pitch in and explain the OA to the maximum possible extent.

1. especially the use of "which"
2. I believe option C has SV disagreement since "cycle" is singular and should use "leads".

People,
please use your judgement not mine !

Reopening the question.
An economic recession can result from a lowering of
employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which
causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of
layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates
.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping
investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending
and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment,
which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower
employment rates.
• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in
investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and
starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment
rates.

In A & B & C, "which" is used wrongly. Also "causing people" not sounds good to me. "D" was ok, but "causing people to" disturbs me. Not sure about my theory, but in such tough problems, every one has a valid view.

So "E" for me.
_________________
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Feb 2010
Posts: 445
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 07:12
I b/w E & C.

(A) lowering of employment rates is wrong .unidiomatic. ELIMINATE

(B) lowering of employment rates is wrong .unidiomatic. ELIMINATE

(D) how can people cut consumer spending ? ELIMINATE

On test Day, I must have chosen E but some how I'm satisfied with my answer .....
Looks like something is tricky in C with usage of "Which".
_________________

GGG (Gym / GMAT / Girl) -- Be Serious

Its your duty to post OA afterwards; some one must be waiting for that...

Retired Moderator
Status: The last round
Joined: 18 Jun 2009
Posts: 1279
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V34
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 07:16
onedayill wrote:
I b/w E & C.

(A) lowering of employment rates is wrong .unidiomatic. ELIMINATE

(B) lowering of employment rates is wrong .unidiomatic. ELIMINATE

(D) how can people cut consumer spending ? ELIMINATE

On test Day, I must have chosen E but some how I'm satisfied with my answer .....
Looks like something is tricky in C with usage of "Which".

So you mean its your 6th sense, which is causing you to think like this. Just kidding. Great thinking I believe. I am strongly supportive of slecting a choice which though not seems ok to you grammatically, but seems ok due to some unknown reason.
_________________
Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Dec 2009
Posts: 409
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 08:49
I picked E.

Investments, itself, didn't cause people to cut spending... it's the full event of 'drop in emp rates caused by a decrease in investments..."
so an -ing modifier (i.e., a verb modifier) is needed here.

and E maintains the parallelism: causing X and starting Y where X and Y are constructed as "noun + prepositional phrase"
_________________

kudos if you like me (or my post)

Senior Manager
Joined: 23 May 2010
Posts: 413
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 10:52
I would go for E ...
Reason .. II ism in three clauses ... So I narrowed to D and E ..
In D .... I did not like " causing ... to cut consumer spending ".....
So chose E...
hope this is correct
reg
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 951
Location: Singapore
Concentration: General Management, Finance
Schools: Chicago Booth - Class of 2015
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 19:15
4
KUDOS
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
OA is C

This is very interesting thing I learnt and I will like to share.

Lets say X is singular and Y plural. Imagine this pattern :
X of Y, which is
------> which points to the noun before the comma. So X or Y??? In such case let GMAT be your guide. I haven't seen a foe helping! But here it does

1. If the verb after which is singular -> which refers to X
2. If the verb after which is plural -> which refers to Y

This rule overrides any rule about "which" referring to X [Reason - Ohhh so you didn't see the preposition "of"]
E.g. the box of nails, which is on the counter ---> which refers to box. I'd always say which refers to box since gmat was consistent in writing statements like this. But the truth is that the verb after "which" is singular "is" and seems to refer to X.

When I saw this sentence today I ignored the hints about "which" - they were right there in the sentence !

3:2 split leaves A,B and C as contenders. And I guess people already killed A and B

Option C. "which" refers to "employment rates" because the verb "cause" is plural. So subject has to be plural.
cycle of layoffs that lead ----> that refers to "layoffs" since the verb "lead" is plural.

• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment,
which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a
cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 951
Location: Singapore
Concentration: General Management, Finance
Schools: Chicago Booth - Class of 2015
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 19:48
So why is E wrong?

Here is the OE
(D) This choice contains the wordy phrase "causing people to cut
consumer spending" and the redundant phrase "lead back."
Moreover, the words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back
to the economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates,
not the economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer
spending and start the cycle of layoffs.
(E) The words "causing" and "starting" illogically refer back to the
economic recession. In fact, the falling employment rates, not the
economic recession, cause the cutbacks in consumer spending
and start the cycle of layoffs.
Manager
Joined: 06 Oct 2009
Posts: 68
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 19:58
But whats the issue with E ?
Is it because of wordy?
_________________

+1 kudos me if this is of any help...

Manager
Joined: 24 Jan 2010
Posts: 151
Location: India
Schools: ISB
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 22:38
I chose C
_________________

_________________
If you like my post, consider giving me a kudos. THANKS!

Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2010, 22:38

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3   4   5   6    Next  [ 112 posts ]

Display posts from previous: Sort by

# An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t

 post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.