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# An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2012, 13:18
chandru42 wrote:
one thing i quite clear which can not refer to a phrase

for-smaller-retailers-and-web-sites-which-pay-regular-mail-139675.html

In this question, which is used to refer a (subject) noun phrase
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 01:33
+1C

Since the contention is basically between C and E, I would like to take only these two options.

The events take place in the following manner

drop in investment ------ falling employment rates ------ cutbacks in consumer spending ------- cycle of layoffs ------ lower employment rates

1 2 3 4 5

The statement wants to convey the cyclical nature of the process. Therefore each single act should lead to the another single act i.e. 1 lead to 2 lead 3 lead to 4 lead to 5

Option C and E differs in this respect
In option C, “starting” modify cutbacks whereas in option E “starting” acts as a verb for “that”. I do not find this option well structured

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2013, 22:52
nightwing79 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Can someone please explain me the usage of which in option A and C
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2013, 16:42
veenu08 wrote:
nightwing79 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Can someone please explain me the usage of which in option A and C

I can see two issues with C
1) the sequence of events is completely changed from the original sentence , drop in investment does not lead to cutbacks but the unemployment does. Similarly consumer spending will not start the cycle of layoffs....
2) cutbacks and layoffs are events that must be in parallel

falling employment rates...causing....and starting...
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2013, 17:06
1
KUDOS
mal208213 wrote:
veenu08 wrote:
nightwing79 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Can someone please explain me the usage of which in option A and C

I can see two issues with C
1) the sequence of events is completely changed from the original sentence , drop in investment does not lead to cutbacks but the unemployment does. Similarly consumer spending will not start the cycle of layoffs....
2) cutbacks and layoffs are events that must be in parallel

falling employment rates...causing....and starting...

Hi ,
i will say that option C is perfectly right.
some theories:
clause,verb+ing====>in this type of structure...verb+ing form always modifies the whole preceeding clause.
moreover if structure is like this:
clause 1,which clause2,verb+ing====>in this type of structure verb+ing modifies the clause 1 and not the clause 2(because comma which always starts a non essential modifier)
clause 1 +that clause 2,verb+ing......==>in this type of structure verb+ing modifies the clause 2 and not clause 1.(that clause always strats a essential modifier)

now in our given sentence:
An economic recession can result from falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investmen ,which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

meaning: which clause here is non essentilal...hence verb -ing is modifying the first clause....
the intended meaning is:
FALLING EMPLOYMENT RATES is causing economic recession====>economic recession is starting a cycle of layoff .......and this layoff is further lowering employment rates.+
Drop in investment ,which cause cutbacks in consumer spending,triggers falling employment rate.
So this two sentences are merged together.

kudos if it helped
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 07:57
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

B. a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

D. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

E. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Last edited by Narenn on 12 Sep 2013, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
Merged in similar topic. Pls search the forum before posting a new question
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 04:38
i'd Pick C ... people to cut consumer spending sounds wrong. We are down to C and E.
however, there are more ways to eliminate

A. Causes and start .. not parallel.
B. Triggered by dropping investment - Wrong
C. Which refers to Drop in investment - Correct no errors i see.
D. causing people to cut consumer spending suggests that people cut consumer spending !
E. Starting a cycle of layoffs leading to - is worng

alagoo wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

B. a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates. -

C. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

D. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

E. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2014, 07:34
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2014, 07:24
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An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2014, 08:01
goodyear2013 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17

The sentence says that economic recession can result of lower employment rates triggered by drop in investment..
Now problem with A and B which refers to investment and not lowering of employment rates as it should..Thus A and B are wrong..

The original sentence means that investment causes people to cutback on spending..(In option B, The verb cause is also incorrect...it should be singular because subject is Investment)

So we are down to C,D and E

E can be ruled out as sub-ordinate clause with that is not there with third element in this list..Also this option changes the meaning by stating that falling employments rates are trigerred by the given factors.

Down to C and D..

Option that are triggerred by is not required as option C is more concise.

Also in D, the sentence means economic recession causes people (really can economic recession cause people...NO NO) to cut consumer spending where as the meaning in C more clear stating that economic recession causes cutback in consumer spending

Thus ans is C

Took me a while but got it correct.

NOTE: We have similar question discussed earlier but the options are bit different and hence not merging the question with previous ones

an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-37157.html
an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-32511.html
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2014, 22:59
WoundedTiger wrote:
goodyear2013 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17

The sentence says that economic recession can result of lower employment rates triggered by drop in investment..
Now problem with A and B which refers to investment and not lowering of employment rates as it should..Thus A and B are wrong..

The original sentence means that investment causes people to cutback on spending..(In option B, The verb cause is also incorrect...it should be singular because subject is Investment)

So we are down to C,D and E

E can be ruled out as sub-ordinate clause with that is not there with third element in this list..Also this option changes the meaning by stating that falling employments rates are trigerred by the given factors.

Down to C and D..

Option that are triggerred by is not required as option C is more concise.

Also in D, the sentence means economic recession causes people (really can economic recession cause people...NO NO) to cut consumer spending where as the meaning in C more clear stating that economic recession causes cutback in consumer spending

Thus ans is C

Took me a while but got it correct.

NOTE: We have similar question discussed earlier but the options are bit different and hence not merging the question with previous ones

an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-37157.html
an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-32511.html

Hey,
i could narrow it down between C & D, but i am still confused with both of the options.

"a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates"
why is the verb plural ? is the subject not singular ? - " a cycle of ..."
is the verb plural because of "THAT" ?
i always get confused with such options.

Thank you.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2014, 00:11
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

I believe meaning of the sentence is more important to pick the right choice:
An economic recession is caused by --> cutbacks in consumer spending & cycle of layoffs --> caused by falling employment rates--> caused by drop in investment.
A) which refers to investment, where as it is the lowering of employment rates that caused cutback in consumer spending
B) which refers to investment, same as above
C) Follows the order of reasoning correctly.
D) people to cut consumer spending ----> is redundant
E) investment, that cause cutbacks ----> singular investment , cause plural verb

Kindly help if any better reasoning. Kudos
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2014, 05:44
Relative pronouns such as which, that, who, where etc modifies noun just before it.

e.g. Books kept in red table, which is inside my room, are heavy.

Here which is modifying table so we have to use singular verb.

A boy is eating vegetables that are fresh.
Here that is modifying noun just before it so we used plural verb.

Coming back to question
a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates
layoffs is plural so we will use plural verb of lead i.e. lead itself.

WoundedTiger wrote:
goodyear2013 wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

A) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
B) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
D) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

Manhattan GMAT SC Quiz Bank Q17

The sentence says that economic recession can result of lower employment rates triggered by drop in investment..
Now problem with A and B which refers to investment and not lowering of employment rates as it should..Thus A and B are wrong..

The original sentence means that investment causes people to cutback on spending..(In option B, The verb cause is also incorrect...it should be singular because subject is Investment)

So we are down to C,D and E

E can be ruled out as sub-ordinate clause with that is not there with third element in this list..Also this option changes the meaning by stating that falling employments rates are trigerred by the given factors.

Down to C and D..

Option that are triggerred by is not required as option C is more concise.

Also in D, the sentence means economic recession causes people (really can economic recession cause people...NO NO) to cut consumer spending where as the meaning in C more clear stating that economic recession causes cutback in consumer spending

Thus ans is C

Took me a while but got it correct.

NOTE: We have similar question discussed earlier but the options are bit different and hence not merging the question with previous ones

an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-37157.html
an-economic-recession-can-result-from-a-lowering-of-32511.html

Hey,
i could narrow it down between C & D, but i am still confused with both of the options.

"a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates"
why is the verb plural ? is the subject not singular ? - " a cycle of ..."
is the verb plural because of "THAT" ?
i always get confused with such options.

Thank you.

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2015, 21:43
+1 for E
which can modify a noun (or noun phrase) not a clause (a,b,c are out)
causing people is wrong (d is out)
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 11:42
I think the answer is E

Sentence structure for Meaning Analysis:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates
• triggered by a drop in investment,
• which causes people to cut consumer spending
• and starts a cycle of layoffs
• leading back to even lower employment rates.

Error Analysis
This sentence tells us about economic recession and its cause.

I. Here ‘’triggered’’ (cause to move) logically & grammatically modifies ‘’employment rates’’.
a. Logic: employment rates are caused to move by a drop in investment
b. Grammar: Past Participle Modifier modifies the preceding Noun

II. Grammatically ‘’which’’ modifies ‘’a drop in investment’’.
a. Think logically, what causes people (all people) to cut consumer spending?- An economic recession or a drop in investment. Of course, an economic recession. Since ‘’causes’’ shows the result of economic recession, we should use ‘’(with comma)causing’’ instead of ‘’which causes’’.
b. Grammar: ‘’causes’’ is incorrect because it modifies ‘’Employment rates’’. (should use ‘’cause’’ instead of ‘’causes’’)

III. This portion (which causes people to cut consumer spending) has another error: redundancy (people & consumer because consumers are people)

IV. Logically “starts a cycle of layoffs” (layoff means termination of employees) shows another result of “an economic recession”. (So we should use “starting” instead of “starts”. Grammatically “starts” is incorrect because it modifies “Employment rates”. (should use “start” instead of starts)

V. ‘’leading’’ logically & grammatically modifies ‘’layoffs’’
i. Logic: “layoffs” (termination of employees) lead interest rate to be lower
ii. Grammar: “Verb+ing Modifier” (without comma) modifies the preceding Noun
VI. This portion has another error: redundancy (“back” & “even lower”). Because “leading to even lower employment rates” means interest rates become further lower. So no need to use “back”.

In summary, we have following errors
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

Process of Elimination

A• a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes
people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

B• a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes
people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
3. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
4. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

C• falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
1. Modifier error: “which causes” (should be “causing”)
2. Parallelism Error : “which causes” and “starting” are not parallel (should be “causing” “starting” because both are the results of an economic recession )
D• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing
people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
1. Redundancy error: “people and consumer”. (Should not use “people”)
2. Modifier error : “starts”. (should be “starting”)
3. Redundancy error : “back” & “even lower”. ( Should not use “back”).

E• falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2015, 00:43
BUMPING this in order to get more clarity on this problem. What's the correct answer C or E?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2015, 00:43
BUMPING this in order to get more clarity on this problem. What's the correct answer C or E?
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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2015, 22:51
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2016, 10:38
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2016, 22:23
triggered by drop in investment is a verb-ed modifier ,modifying "falling employment rates " , and which correctly refers to this and cause is the right plural verb
"starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates" is a verb-ing modifier present s the result of the previous clause.
Re: An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates t   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2016, 22:23

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